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SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants
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ERRATUM: Derived Cetane Number, Distillation and Ignition Delay Properties of Diesel and Jet Fuels Containing Blended Synthetic Paraffinic Mixtures

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

DST Group-Renee Webster, David Evans
DST Group, RMIT University-Paul Rawson
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-9076.01
Published 2016-10-24 by SAE International in United States
Erratum published to correct author listing
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Investigation and Analysis of Wear in a 3.6L V6 Gasoline Engine: Phase I - Use of Radioactive Tracer Technology

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Shell Global Solutions (US) Inc.-Varun Gauba, Tushar Bera, Jannik Reitz, Edward Nelson
Southwest Research Institute-Gregory Hansen, Peter Lee, Craig Wileman
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0800
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Piston ring and liner wear measurements and analyses were performed in a production 3.6L V6 gasoline engine with radiolabelled engine parts. Three isotopes were generated: one in the engine liner using surface layer activation; one each in the top ring face and top ring side using bulk activation. Real-time wear measurements and subsequent rates of these three surfaces were captured using the radioactive decay of the isotopes into the engine oiling system. In addition, surface roughness and wear profile measurements were carried out using white light interferometry. The results from Phase I provided insights on evolution of wear and wear rates in critical engine components in a gasoline engine.Phase II will extend this work further and focus on evaluating the fuel additive effects on engine wear.
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Lowering Friction in Timing Chain Drive Systems by Tuning Tensioner Materials

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

BorgWarner Morse TEC-Fenton I. O'Shea
DSM Ahead B.V.-Marcel Meuwissen, Thijs Besseling, Robbert van Sluijs
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0462
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Fuel economy improvement efforts in engines have focused on reducing parasitic losses. This paper addresses the friction losses in the valve train chain drive system where about half of the losses is caused by the chain sliding on plastic guide and tensioner arm faces (Figure 1). Efforts have been made to reduce these friction losses by optimizing the chain link profile, the geometry of the guide and tensioner arm rails, and developments towards low friction materials.This paper describes the approach taken for the development of new low-friction chain tensioner arm plastic materials. The approach is characterized by building an understanding of the friction mechanisms and identifying the most critical material’s properties. A lab-scale test is used for a first assessment of the friction performance of materials. The correlation between this lab-scale test and the actual chain-on-tensioner arm application is discussed. The effect of a number of key parameters such as temperature, oil viscosity, oil age, and surface roughness is illustrated and explained. Finally, the performance of a new low-friction polyamide 46 based material is demonstrated.
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A Chemical and Morphological Study of Diesel Injector Nozzle Deposits - Insights into their Formation and Growth Mechanisms

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Imperial College-Catriona McGivery, Jun Jiang, Finn Giulliani, Ben Britton
Shell Global Solutions (UK)-Nicholas J. Rounthwaite, Rod Williams
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0798
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Modern diesel passenger car technology continues to develop rapidly in response to demanding emissions, performance, refinement, cost and fuel efficiency requirements. This has included the implementation of high pressure common rail fuel systems employing high precision injectors with complex injection strategies, higher hydraulic efficiency injector nozzles and in some cases <100µm nozzle hole diameters. With the trend towards lower diameter diesel injector nozzle holes and reduced cleaning through cavitation with higher hydraulic efficiency nozzles, it is increasingly important to focus on understanding the mechanism of diesel injector nozzle deposit formation and growth. In this study such deposits were analysed by cross-sectioning the diesel injector along the length of the nozzle hole enabling in-depth analysis of deposit morphology and composition change from the inlet to the outlet, using state-of-the-art electron microscopy techniques. Deposits produced in the injector nozzles of the industry standard fouling test (CEC F-98-08 DW10B bench engine) were compared with those formed in a vehicle driven on a chassis dynamometer, using a drive cycle more representative of real world vehicle conditions, to explore the…
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Impact of Fuel Sensitivity (RON-MON) on Engine Efficiency

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Shell Global Solutions-Arjun Prakash, Chongming Wang, Andreas Janssen, Allen Aradi, Roger Cracknell
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0799
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Modern spark ignition engines can take advantage of better fuel octane quality either towards improving acceleration performance or fuel economy via an active ignition management system. Higher fuel octane allows for spark timing advance and consequently higher torque output and higher engine efficiency. Additionally, engines can be designed with higher compression ratios if a higher anti-knock quality fuel is used. Due to historical reasons, Research Octane (RON) and Motor Octane Number (MON) are the metrics used to characterize the anti-knock quality of a fuel. The test conditions used to compute RON and MON correlated well with those in older engines designed about 20 years ago. But the correlation has drifted considerably in the recent past due to advances in engine infrastructures mainly governed by stringent fuel economy and emission standards. In prior research, the octane response of modern engines seemed to correlate better with RON than MON; however, the impact of octane sensitivity (RON-MON) has not been evaluated in detail. In this study, the aforementioned relationship between engine octane appetite and octane sensitivity was studied…
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The Evaluation of Vehicle Fuel Consumption and Harmful Emission Using the Heating System in a Driving Cycle

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Kharkov National Auto Highway University-Igor Gritsuk, Vladimir Volkov
National Transport University-Vasyl Mateichyk, Yurii Gutarevych, Mykola Tsiuman, Nataliia Goridko
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-26-0364
Published 2017-01-10 by SAE International in United States
The article suggests the results of experimental and theoretical studies of the engine heating system with a phase-transitional thermal accumulator when the vehicle is in motion in a driving cycle. The aim of the study is to evaluate the efficiency of the vehicle heating system within thermal accumulator and catalytic converter under operating conditions. The peculiarity of the presented system is that it uses thermal energy of exhaust gases to accumulate energy during engine operation. The article describes the methodology to evaluate vehicle fuel consumption and emission in the driving cycle according to the UNECE Regulation № 83-05. The methodology takes into account the environmental parameters, road conditions, the design parameters of the vehicle, the modes of its motion, thermal state of the engine cooling system and the catalytic converter. Experimental studies determined the patterns of changing technical parameters of the engine G4GC (4FS 7.72 / 8.45) in the heating process using the heating system with thermal accumulator. Mathematical modelling techniques enabled to obtain quantitative values of fuel consumption and emission of KIA CEE'D 2.0…
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The Effect of Near-Zero Aromatic Fuels on Internal Diesel Injector Deposit Test Methods

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Konrad Mokheseng
Lubrizol Ltd.-Robert Barbour, Brian Sword, Daniel Burton
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0807
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Internal diesel injector deposits (IDID) are now a well understood phenomenon and a standard test procedure has been developed and partially approved by the Coordinating European Council (CEC). The engine test procedure has been approved for simulation of sodium soap deposits by dosing the test fuel with a sodium salt and dodecenyl succinic acid (DDSA), whilst amide lacquer deposits simulation by dosing the test fuel with a low molecular weight (MWt) polyisobutylene succinimide (PIBSI) is still under development. The solubility of these contaminants in the base fuel should be reasonably constant to achieve consistent results. With the introduction of diesel from varying sources, this study focused on the effect of near-zero aromatics EN 15940 compliant gas-to-liquids GTL diesel, very similar to hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO), on IDID severity across two different engine platforms, and the response of a modern deposit control additive.The test results showed that, with the same level of contaminants, IDID severity did differ significantly when comparing GTL diesel to a petroleum diesel reference fuel. The IDID effects also differed across engine platforms.…
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Numerical Investigation of a Gasoline-Like Fuel in a Heavy-Duty Compression Ignition Engine Using Global Sensitivity Analysis

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Aramco Research Center-Yuanjiang Pei, Michael Traver
Aramco Services Co.-Yu Zhang, David Cleary
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0578
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Fuels in the gasoline auto-ignition range (Research Octane Number (RON) > 60) have been demonstrated to be effective alternatives to diesel fuel in compression ignition engines. Such fuels allow more time for mixing with oxygen before combustion starts, owing to longer ignition delay. Moreover, by controlling fuel injection timing, it can be ensured that the in-cylinder mixture is “premixed enough” before combustion occurs to prevent soot formation while remaining “sufficiently inhomogeneous” in order to avoid excessive heat release rates. Gasoline compression ignition (GCI) has the potential to offer diesel-like efficiency at a lower cost and can be achieved with fuels such as low-octane straight run gasoline which require significantly less processing in the refinery compared to today’s fuels.To aid the design and optimization of a compression ignition (CI) combustion system using such fuels, a global sensitivity analysis (GSA) was conducted to understand the relative influence of various design parameters on efficiency, emissions and heat release rate. The design parameters included injection strategies, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) fraction, temperature and pressure at intake valve closure and…
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Numerical Simulation of Gasoline and n-Butanol Combustion in an Optically Accessible Research Engine

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Istituto Motori CNR-Adrian Irimescu, Simona Merola
Universita degli Studi di Modena-Sebastiano Breda, Alessandro D'Adamo, Stefano Fontanesi, Fabrizio D'Orrico, Nicola Giovannoni
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0546
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Conventional fossil fuels are more and more regulated in terms of both engine-out emissions and fuel consumption. Moreover, oil price and political instabilities in oil-producer countries are pushing towards the use of alternative fuels compatible with the existing units. N-Butanol is an attractive candidate as conventional gasoline replacement, given its ease of production from bio-mass and key physico-chemical properties similar to their gasoline counterpart. A comparison in terms of combustion behavior of gasoline and n-Butanol is here presented by means of experiments and 3D-CFD simulations. The fuels are tested on a single-cylinder direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) unit with an optically accessible flat piston. The analysis is carried out at stoichiometric undiluted condition and lean-diluted mixture for both pure fuels. Numerical simulations are carried out on the same operating points and a dedicated set of detailed chemistry simulations are used to accurately predict laminar flame speed for both gasoline and n-Butanol at selected engine-relevant conditions. Moreover, a method to accurately fit target results is presented and it is applied to obtain a polynomial form of laminar flame…
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Compatibility of Fuel System Elastomers with Bio-Blendstock Fuel Candidates Using Hansen Solubility Analysis

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Oak Ridge National Laboratory-Michael D. Kass, Brian H. West
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0802
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
The compatibility of key fuel system infrastructure elastomers with promising bio-blendstock fuel candidates was examined using Hansen solubility analysis. Thirty-four candidate fuels were evaluated in this study including multiple alcohols, esters, ethers, ketones, alkenes and one alkane. These compounds were evaluated as neat molecules and as blends with the gasoline surrogate, dodecane and a mix of dodecane and 10% ethanol (E10D). The elastomer materials were fluorocarbon, acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR), styrene butadiene (SBR), neoprene, polyurethane and silicone. These materials have been rigorously studied with other fuel types, and their measured volume change results were found to correspond well with their predicted solubility levels. The alcohols showed probable compatibility with fluorocarbon and polyurethane, but are not likely to be compatible at low blend levels with NBR and SBR. Low and mid-range blends are also considered incompatible with silicone, as are mid-range blends with neoprene. The alkane fuel candidate is likely compatible with fluorocarbon, polyurethane, NBR and SBR at most blend levels, but low to mid-range blends are not likely compatible with silicone. Neoprene showed compatibility only…
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