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SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants
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Analysis of E-85 Fuel for Formic, Acetic, Propionic, Butyric, Glycolic and Citric Acids using Reversed Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Delphi Corporation-J. Galante-Fox
  • Journal Article
  • 2008-01-2509
Published 2008-10-06 by SAE International in United States
An HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography) method to measure the concentration of six organic acids in E-85 fuel has been developed. A three point calibration curve is established using standard solutions of the following organic acids: formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid, glycolic acid and citric acid. An internal standard (maleic acid) is used to monitor HPLC system suitability and peak retention time stability. The method utilizes UV detection at 210 nm to detect and quantify the levels of each acid in E-85 fuel. Test results from nine commercially available E-85 fuel samples are reported.Analytical method validation was achieved by performing and confirming system suitability or injection repeatability (percent relative standard deviation ≤ 3%), calibration curve linearity (R2 ≥ 0.999), analysis repeatability (standard deviation < 1 mg/L) and recovery (percent recovery 91 - 102%). The minimum detectable level was determined to be less than 1.5 mg/L for each acid.
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Comparison of Performance and Combustion Characteristics of Diesel Fuel and Vegetable Oils in DI Diesel Engine

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Chongqing University-D. F. Ruan
University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign-W. L. Cheng, C. F. Lee
  • Journal Article
  • 2008-01-1639
Published 2008-06-23 by SAE International in United States
GT-Power, an engine modeling software, is used to study the combustion characteristics of cottonseed, linseed and peanut oils in a heavy-duty direct-injection diesel engine. The fuel properties library in GT-Power is expanded to include cottonseed oil, linseed oil and peanut oil, using either theoretical methods or experimental measurements. The numerical model is calibrated with experimental data and good agreement is observed. The simulation results show that combustion characteristics and engine performances differ when vegetable oil is used instead of no. 2 diesel fuel. Raising the injection pressure significantly alters the combustion characteristics without improving the brake performances. However, higher injection pressure does reduce both NOx emission and combustion noise.
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Combustion and Emission Characteristics of CNG Fuel inside CVC Chamber

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Daejin University, Korea-Doo Sung Baik, Jong-Sun Lee
Kookmin University, Korea-Yong-Seok Cho, Seang Wock Lee
  • Journal Article
  • 2008-01-0322
Published 2008-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This research aims to obtain fundamentals regarding overall combustion characteristics of pre-mixed and direct injected type CNG fuel inside a constant volume chamber.A visualization technique was introduced to a constant volume chamber in order to investigate combustion and emission characteristics of premixed and direct injected type CNG fuel inside a constant volume chamber. The experiment on a premixed combustion was conducted by measuring constant pressure and emission and controlling speeds of a swirling motor and equivalence ratios in order to investigate swirling effects on flame propagation.Faster combustion speed and higher combustion pressure were occurred in a direct injected type combustion even under the lean condition of the equivalence ratio 0.6 compared to premixed combustion.
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Friction and Film-Formation Properties of Oil-Soluble Inorganic Nanoparticles

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Afton Chemical Company-Mark T. Devlin, Allen A. Aradi, Jeffrey M. Guevremont, Tze-Chi Jao
Virginia Commonwealth University-Victor Abdelsayed, M. Samy ElShall
  • Journal Article
  • 2008-01-2460
Published 2008-10-06 by SAE International in United States
Many vehicle and engine test studies have shown that the fuel efficiency of automobiles can be improved by reducing friction between moving parts. Typically, organic friction modifiers such as glycerol monooleate (GMO) or metal containing friction modifiers such as molybdenum dithiocarbamate (MoDTC) have been added to engine oils to reduce boundary friction and improve fuel efficiency. These traditional friction modifiers act by forming either a self-assembled organic film (in the case of GMO) or a Mo-disulfide chemical film (in the case of MoDTC). More recently, the ability of inorganic tungsten disulfide (WS2) nanoparticles to reduce boundary friction has been described. Martin has proposed that WS2 nanoparticles are transported into a contact zone where they are compressed and peel open like an onion to form a film. In this study, oil-soluble inorganic nanoparticles containing cerium (Ce) and zinc (Zn) have been synthesized. These nanoparticles reduce friction when solubilized in base oil or fully-formulated engine oil. In addition, boundary films formed in or around the contact zone by oils containing the nanoparticles contain the metal in the…
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The Effect of Lower Viscosity Automatic Transmission Fluid on Glaze Chemistry

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

BorgWarner, Inc.-Timothy Newcomb, Mark Sparrow, Brian Ciupak, Yousif Hadad, Jon Hassert
  • Journal Article
  • 2008-01-2395
Published 2008-10-06 by SAE International in United States
One of the most common failure modes for a friction interface is the accumulation of glaze on the friction material surface. Until recently, our analysis of glaze chemistry has always been consistent with the degradation of detergent, antiwear and extreme pressure additives in the oil. These additive degradation products are readily identified by the presence of Ca, P, S and Zn in an EDS analysis. In these cases the loss of friction performance, characterized by a gradual fade in friction coefficient and the concomitant development of a negative friction-speed gradient, is directly related to the loss of surface porosity due to the accumulation of glaze on the friction material surface.Over the past few years, the drive for better fuel economy in passenger cars has led to the introduction of lower viscosity oils possessing high viscosity index and shear stability. We have observed that these fluids also can lead to glaze accumulation on the friction surface. However, for these new oils, under certain conditions, the glaze is a consequence of the viscosity modifier additives. The association…
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Analysis of Deposit Formation Mechanism on TEOST 33C by Engine Oil Containing MoDTC

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Japan Energy Corporation-Satoru Yoshida, Yasushi Naitoh
  • Journal Article
  • 2008-01-2480
Published 2008-10-06 by SAE International in United States
The addition of molybdenum dithiocarbamate (MoDTC) to engine oil improves the fuel consumption of vehicles. However, this is also widely known to cause deposit accretion in the Thermo-Oxidation Engine Oil Simulation Test (TEOST 33C). Thus the effects of additives on TEOST 33C and elemental analysis of the deposits were evaluated to analyze the deposit formation mechanism in TEOST 33C by engine oil containing MoDTC. An elemental analysis of deposits revealed that most consisted of carbide and contained small amounts of molybdenum compounds. Deposit accretion was not caused due to the remarkable increase of compounds derived from MoDTC. It was assumed that they acted as a decomposition catalyst under high temperature and induced carbide to be deposited.
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Influence of High Fuel Rail Pressure and Urea Selective Catalytic Reduction on PM Formation in an Off-Highway Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Oak Ridge National Laboratory-Michael D. Kass, Norberto Domingo, John M. E. Storey, Samuel A. Lewis
  • Journal Article
  • 2008-01-2497
Published 2008-10-06 by SAE International in United States
The influence of fuel rail pressure (FRP) and urea-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on particulate matter (PM) formation is investigated in this paper along with notes regarding the NOx and other emissions. Increasing FRP was shown to reduce the overall soot and total PM mass for four operating conditions. These conditions included two high speed conditions (2400 rpm at 540 and 270 Nm of torque) and two moderated speed conditions (1400 rpm at 488 and 325 Nm). The concentrations of CO2 and NOx increased with fuel rail pressure and this is attributed to improved fuel-air mixing. Interestingly, the level of unburned hydrocarbons remained constant (or increased slightly) with increased FRP. PM concentration was measured using an AVL smoke meter and scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS); and total PM was collected using standard gravimetric techniques. These results showed that the smoke number and particulate concentrations decrease with increasing FRP. However the decrease becomes more gradual as very high rail pressures. Additionally, the total PM decreased with increasing FRP; however, the soluble organic fraction (SOF) reaches a maximum…
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Analysis of Oxidative Deterioration of Biodiesel Fuel

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Toyota Central R&D Labs., Inc.-Tadao Ogawa, Shuji Kajiya, Satoru Kosaka, Ichiro Tajima, Masami Yamamoto
Toyota Motor Corp.-Masanori Okada
  • Journal Article
  • 2008-01-2502
Published 2008-10-06 by SAE International in United States
Methyl esters of saturated/unsaturated higher aliphatic acids (FAMEs) and a FAME of waste cooking oil (WCOME) were heated at 120°C in an air gas flow. The samples were analyzed before and after heating, using six different methods including electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. As a result, the samples after heating were found to contain low molecular weight aliphatic compounds and oligomers of the FAME. Based on the chemical structure of these oxidation products, reaction schemes were proposed for the deterioration of FAMEs. In addition, two unsaturated FAMEs containing 2,6-di-t-butyl-p-cresol (BHT) were similarly heated and analyzed to examine the effect of BHT on the oxidation of these FAME.
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Detection, Origin and Effect of Ultra-Low Platinum Contamination on Diesel-SCR Catalysts

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Ford Motor Company-Hung-Wen Jen, James W. Girard, Giovanni Cavataio, Mark J. Jagner
  • Journal Article
  • 2008-01-2488
Published 2008-10-06 by SAE International in United States
This paper discusses the poisoning of a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst by trace levels of platinum originating from an upstream diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC). A diesel aftertreatment system consisting of a DOC, urea based SCR Catalyst and a DPF was aged and evaluated on a 6.4 liter diesel engine dynamometer. The SCR catalyst system consisted of an Fe-zeolite catalyst followed by a Cu-zeolite catalyst. After approximately 400 hours of engine operation at varied exhaust flow rates and temperatures, deactivation of the SCR catalyst was observed. A subsequent detailed investigation revealed that the Cu catalyst was not deactivated and the front half of the Fe-based catalyst showed severe deactivation. The deactivated portion of the catalyst showed high activity of NH3 conversion to NOx and N2O formation. The cause of the deactivation was identified to be the presence of trace Pt contamination. The contamination level was less than 0.002wt% that could not easily be detected by a conventional X-ray fluorescence (XRF) method. The detection of trace Pt was made at first using a newly developed ethylene…
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Analytical Ferrography Applied to Driveline Fluid Analysis

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

BorgWarner, Inc.-Timothy Newcomb, Mark Sparrow
  • Journal Article
  • 2008-01-2398
Published 2008-10-06 by SAE International in United States
Analytical ferrography of used oils is most often associated with machine maintenance programs where it is used as a predictive tool to avoid catastrophic failures. The technique is not widely used in driveline fluid evaluations, likely due to both its expense and a general unfamiliarity of the technique among engineers and scientists involved in driveline fluid analysis. However, this technique can provide data essential to understanding the degraded performance of the friction interface.In this paper we briefly describe analytical ferrography. We then show three circumstances where the use of this technique is appropriate for the evaluation of used driveline fluids. First we illustrate how analytical ferrography can be used to detect the past presence of water in oil that is currently dry. Next we show how the technique can help identify contaminant particles that would normally remain undetected due to size and low abundance. Finally we demonstrate how this technique can be used to identify friction material debris.We close with an amusing example of an odd-looking contaminant found during a routine oil analysis.
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