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Chassis Dynamometer Testing of a Class 5 Battery Electric Commercial Truck

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Calstart-Jean-Baptiste Gallo
Univ of California-Riverside-Robert L. Russell, Kent Johnson, Thomas Durbin
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-9019
Published 2015-10-01 by SAE International in United States
With funding from the California Energy Commission, the California Hybrid, Efficient and Advanced Truck Research Center, contracted with the University of California, Riverside's College of Engineering to evaluate the performance of a Class 5 battery electric urban delivery vehicle over two standardized driving cycles and a steady state range test on a chassis dynamometer. The test vehicle, a Smith Electric Newton Step Van, was equipped with a proprietary data acquisition system which was set to record a wide variety of vehicle parameters at a 1 Hz sampling period. In addition, the chassis dynamometer was set to measure and record additional parameters. Lastly, a portable J1772 EVSE recorded both grid energy and power at 15-minute intervals.This project provides a controlled test evaluation of the Smith Electric Newton Step Van. It recognizes the vehicle's potential for a successful delivery vehicle and identifies several important findings and areas that will need further research. The Newton Step Van is an efficient and clean alternative to equivalent diesel vehicles. The Newton Step Van showed an equivalent fuel economy between 38.4…
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Self-Learning Control Strategy for Electrified Off-Highway Machines to Optimize Energy Efficiency

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Karlsruhe Institute of Technology-Christian Pohlandt, Marcus Geimer
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-2831
Published 2015-09-29 by SAE International in United States
The electrification of off-highway machines are increasing significantly. Advanced functionalities, beneficial energy efficiency and effectiveness are only a few advantages of electric propulsion systems. To control these complex systems in varying environments intelligent algorithms at system level are needed. This paper addresses the topic of machine learning algorithms applied to off-highway machines and presents a methodology based on artificial neural networks to identify and recognize recurrent load cycles and work tasks. To gain efficiency and effectiveness benefits the recognized pattern settings are applied to the electric propulsion system to adjust relevant parameters online. A dynamic adaption of the DC-link voltage based on the operating points of the machine processes is identified as such a parameter.
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Displacement Joystick/Thumb Wheel Switch Control Profile for Precision and Jerk Free Speed Control Application in Open Loop System

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

John Deere India Pvt. Ltd.-Sanket Pawar
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-2870
Published 2015-09-29 by SAE International in United States
Displacement joystick controls are considered as most suitable for manual controls wherever proportional outputs are required for dynamic applications such as when variable speed sensitivity or position are required. These joysticks are being used widely in both open loop as well as in close loop controls. The operator applies force to either the joystick itself or to its proportional linear displacement thumb wheel switches. This movement is then detected by either resistive or Hall Effect sensors, placed right inside joystick, and converted into an electrical signal. These joysticks, along with proportional linear displacement thumb wheel switches, find a wide range of applications in off-road vehicles such construction and forestry vehicles, harvester machines, and etc. for applications like attachment speed controls, boom position control, rotation speed control, and etc. The higher the displacement of the joystick, or its linear displacement thumb wheel switches, the better will be the control over the control parameter.When it comes to open loop attachment control systems, where joystick displacement is directly linked with speed, most times the displacement provided by joystick…
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Based on the Unscented Kalman Filter to Estimate the State of Four-Wheel-Independent Electric Vehicle with X-by-Wire

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

ASCL Jilin University-Xingjian Gu, Guoying Chen, Changfu Zong
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-2731
Published 2015-09-29 by SAE International in United States
As a new form of electric vehicle, Four-wheel-independent electric vehicle with X-By-Wire (XBW) inherits all the advantages of in-wheel motor drive electric vehicles. The vehicle steering system is liberated from traditional mechanical steering mechanism and forms an advanced vehicle with all- wheel independent driving, braking and steering. Compared with conventional vehicles, it has more controllable degrees of freedom. The design of the integrated vehicle dynamics control systems helps to achieve the steering, driving and braking coordinated control and improves the vehicle's handling stability. In order to solve the problem of lacking of vehicle state information in the integrated control, some methods are used to estimate the vehicle state of four-wheel-independent electric vehicles with XBW. In order to improve the estimation accuracy, unscented Kalman filter (UKF) is used to estimate the vehicle state variables in this paper. At the same time, simulations in several typical working conditions have been carried out based on the simulation models of four-wheel- independent electric vehicle with XBW, which are established by CarSim and Simulink together. The simulation results show that:…
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The Impact of Lift Axles on Fuel Economy and GHG Emissions Reduction

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

FP Innovations-Marius-Dorin Surcel, Adime Kofi Bonsi
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-2874
Published 2015-09-29 by SAE International in United States
Using lift axles enables fleet to increase the load capacity of a vehicle, eliminating the need for multiple trips, thus reducing operational costs.In a project to assess the potential of reducing fuel consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by lifting axles on unloaded semi-trailers, lift axle regulations in various jurisdictions and the studies that led to these regulations were analyzed.The SAE Fuel Consumption Test Procedures Type II (J1321) was used for fuel consumption track test evaluations. The tests were conducted on unloaded two-axle van semi-trailers, four-axle van semitrailers, and B-trains, and resulted in fuel savings of 1.3% to 4.8%, depending on vehicle configuration and the number of axles lifted during the test. Temperature measurements and thermal images taken during the tests show that the difference in temperature of rolling tires of tandem axles with one axle lifted, compared to the temperature of rolling tires of tandem axles with both axles on ground was minimal.As such, lifting the axles of unloaded van semi-trailers shows an interesting potential in fuel savings and GHG emissions reduction because in…
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A New Method for Bus Drivers' Economic Efficiency Assessment

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Tsinghua University-Xu Kuang, Jianqiang Wang, Keqiang Li
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-2843
Published 2015-09-29 by SAE International in United States
Transport vehicles consume a large amount of fuel with low efficiency, which is significantly affected by drivers' behaviors. An assessment system of eco-driving pattern for buses could identify the deficiencies of driver operation as well as assist transportation enterprises in driver management.This paper proposes an assessment method regarding drivers' economic efficiency, considering driving conditions. To this end, assessment indexes are extracted from driving economy theories and ranked according to their effect on fuel consumption, derived from a database of 135 buses using multiple regression. A layered structure of assessment indexes is developed with application of AHP, and the weight of each index is estimated. The driving pattern score could be calculated with these weights. Meanwhile, allowing for the impact of vehicles and roads, the system trains an artificial neural network with excellent drivers' driving data in order to predict the ideal fuel consumption of specific maneuvers. The driving pattern score can be validated with the fuel score that is obtained from the comparison between actual and ideal fuel consumption. Finally, an assessment system of eco-driving…
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Analysis Process for Truck Fuel Efficiency Study

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

DOT/Volpe Center-Coralie Cooper
National Highway Traffic Safety Admin.-John Whitefoot, James MacIsaac
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-2778
Published 2015-09-29 by SAE International in United States
Medium- and Heavy Duty Truck fuel consumption and the resulting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are significant contributors to overall U.S. GHG emissions. Forecasts of medium- and heavy-duty vehicle activity and fuel use predict increased use of freight transport will result in greatly increased GHG emissions in the coming decades. As a result, the National Highway Traffic Administration (NHTSA) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) finalized a regulation requiring reductions in medium and heavy truck fuel consumption and GHGs beginning in 2014. The agencies are now proposing new regulations that will extend into the next decade, requiring additional fuel consumption and GHG emissions reductions. To support the development of future regulations, a research project was sponsored by NHTSA to look at technologies that could be used for compliance with future regulations.Data presented in this paper detail how engine and vehicle simulation models were developed for current medium and heavy duty vehicles and then validated against available test results. In addition, the paper describes how potential future engine and vehicle technologies were added to the…
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Impact of Ice Formation in Diesel Fuel on Tier 4 Off-Road Engine Performance with High Efficiency Fuel Filtration

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Donaldson Company, Inc-Matthew Goertz, Davis Moravec
John Deere Power Systems-Lloyd Tull
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-2817
Published 2015-09-29 by SAE International in United States
The winter of 2013-2014 provided an opportunity to operate off-road vehicles in cold weather for extended time as part of a vehicle/tier 4 diesel engine validation program. An unexpected area of study was the performance of high efficiency, on engine, fuel filters during continuous vehicle operation in cold weather. During the program we observed unexpected premature fuel filter plugging as indicated by an increase in pressure drop across the filter while in service. Field and laboratory testing was completed at John Deere and Donaldson to understand the cause of filter plugging.Although conditions were found where winter fuel additives could cause plugging of high efficiency filters, premature filter plugging occurred even when testing with #1 diesel fuel. This fuel contained no additives and was used at temperatures well above its cloud point. In some cases, laboratory testing of returned plugged filters did not reveal a high pressure drop across the filter and visual examination did not provide additional insight.This paper discusses the vehicle/tier 4 engine and filter testing activity that lead us to conclude that ice…
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Model-Based Estimation of Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag and Rolling Resistance

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Clemson-ICAR-Darui Zhang, Andrej Ivanco, Zoran Filipi
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-2776
Published 2015-09-29 by SAE International in United States
Commercial vehicles transport the majority of the inland freight in US and a significant number of passengers. They are large fuel consumers as they operate a large number of hours per day, pulling heavy loads. The increasing fuel price and the Green House Gas emission regulation have provided a strong impetus for new technologies capable of improving the commercial vehicle fuel economy. Among others, optimized powertrain control can improve the vehicle fuel economy, particularly if it is based on accurate information about the instantaneous load demand. Furthermore, model-based online vehicle parameter estimator is critical for implementation of an adaptive vehicle controller.While vehicle mass estimation has been successfully demonstrated, rolling resistance and aerodynamic drag estimation has not been fully explored yet. This paper examines this problem using model-based approach with a supervisory data extraction scheme. The estimator uses signals from the standard vehicle CAN bus and accelerometer sensor to determine vehicle rolling resistance and aerodynamic drag coefficient on-the-fly. A supervisor monitors vehicle motion and extracts data only during events with high signal to noise ratio. The…
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Directional Dynamics of Steering the Third Axle

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

TRW Commercial Steering Systems-Daniel E. Williams, Amine Nhila
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-2747
Published 2015-09-29 by SAE International in United States
With the expectation that means of redundant steering will be necessary for highly autonomous vehicles, different methods of providing redundant steering can be considered. One potential for redundancy is to steer the rear axle for directional control of the vehicle in the event of a failure in the primary steered front axle. This paper will characterize the dynamics of directional control of a three-axle vehicle when steered at the rear, and compare it to a conventionally steered three-axle vehicle. Several compensators are suggested that allow similar vehicle dynamic behavior when steering the rear axle as a driver would expect when steering the front, giving hope that a steerable rear axle can provide acceptable redundancy for a failed primary steering system on the front axle.
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