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Experimental Assessments of Parallel Hybrid Medium-Duty Truck

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

ASRC-Primus Solutions, Inc.-Molly O'Malley, Allen Quail
Wayne State University-Y. Gene Liao
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-9021
Published 2014-05-20 by SAE International in United States
Fuel consumption reduction on medium-duty tactical truck has and continues to be a significant initiative for the U.S. Army. The Crankshaft-Integrated-Starter-Generator (C-ISG) is one of the parallel hybrid propulsions to improve the fuel economy. The C-ISG configuration is attractive because one electric machine can be used to propel the vehicle, to start the engine, and to be function as a generator. The C-ISG has been implemented in one M1083A1 5-ton tactical cargo truck. This paper presents the experimental assessments of the C-ISG hybrid truck characteristics. The experimental assessments include all electric range for on- and off-road mission cycles and fuel consumption for the high voltage battery charging. Stationary tests related to the charging profile of the battery pack and the silent watch time duration is also conducted.
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Experimentally Compared Fuel Consumption Modelling of Refuse Collecting Vehicles for Energy Optimization Purposes

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Ros Roca Group-Francisco Soriano
UPC-Jesus Alvarez-Florez, Manuel Moreno-Eguilaz
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-9023
Published 2014-05-09 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents a novel methodology to develop and validate fuel consumption models of Refuse Collecting Vehicles (RCVs). The model development is based on the improvement of the classic approach. The validation methodology is based on recording vehicle drive cycles by the use of a low cost data acquisition system and post processing them by the use of GPS and map data. The corrected data are used to feed the mathematical energy models and the fuel consumption is estimated.In order to validate the proposed system, the fuel consumption estimated from these models is compared with real filling station refueling records. This comparison shows that these models are accurate to within 5%.
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Model-Based and Signal-Based Gearbox Sensor Fault Detection, Identification and Accommodation

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Eaton Corp.-John O. Manyala
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-9025
Published 2014-05-09 by SAE International in United States
The emergence of tougher environmental legislations and ever increasing demand for increased ride comfort, fuel efficiency, and low emissions have triggered exploration and advances towards more efficient vehicle gearbox technologies. The growing complexity and spatial distribution of such a mechatronic gearbox demands precise timing and coordination of the embedded electronics, integrated sensors and actuators as well as excellent overall reliability. The increased gearbox distributed systems have seen an increased dependence on sensors for feedback control, predominantly relying on hardware redundancy for faults diagnosis. However, the conventional hardware redundancy has disadvantages due to increased costs, weight, volume, power requirements and failure rates. This paper presents a virtual position sensor-based Fault Detection, Isolation and Accommodation (FDIA), which generates an analytical redundancy for comparison against the actual sensor output. The proposed FDIA scheme has been validated experimentally using an electro-hydraulic test rig and the gearshift simulation model, including the non-linear hydraulic actuator dynamics.
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Signal-Based Actuators Fault Detection and Isolation for Gearbox Applications

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Eaton Corp.-John O. Manyala, Todd W. Fritz
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-9022
Published 2014-05-09 by SAE International in United States
Electro-hydraulic actuated systems are widely used in industrial applications due to high torque density, higher speeds and wide bandwidth operation. However, the complexities and the parametric uncertainties of the hydraulic actuated systems pose challenges in establishing analytical mathematical models. Unlike electro-mechanical and pneumatic systems, the nonlinear dynamics due to dead band, hysteresis, nonlinear pressure flow relations, leakages and friction affects the pressure sensitivity and flow gain by altering the system's transient response, which can introduce asymmetric oscillatory behavior and a lag in the system response. The parametric uncertainties make it imperative to have condition monitoring with in-built diagnostics capability. Timely faults detection and isolation can help mitigate catastrophic failures. This paper presents a signal-based fault diagnostic scheme for a gearbox hydraulic actuator leakage detection using the wavelet transform. The novelty of the work is the development of a high fidelity leakage fault detection as low as 0.128 lit/min. The low leakage detection and independence on system model makes this technique quite attractive for industrial applications.
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Development of Representative Regional Delivery Drive Cycles for Heavy-Duty Truck Tractors

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

CALSTART, Inc.-Jean-Baptiste Gallo
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-9024
Published 2014-05-05 by SAE International in United States
Several drive cycles have been developed to describe heavy-duty class 8 truck tractor operations. However, regional delivery operations, consisting of a mix of urban and over-the-road driving using highways to access several delivery/pick-up sites in dense urban areas, have not been well described. With funding from the U.S. Army National Automotive Center, the High-efficiency Truck Users Forum (HTUF) developed two drive cycles in an effort to better describe the full range of Class 8 truck tractor operations, which in total consumed about 30 billion gallons of diesel in the United States in 2010.This paper describes the rational for and the process to develop two regional delivery drive cycles: HTUF Regional Delivery #1 and HTUF Regional Delivery #2. These cycles were developed from more than eight months of cumulative data collected on six diesel Class 8 truck tractors operating across North America and representing several types of truck vocations.The HTUF Regional Delivery drive cycles fill an important gap in understanding and describing the full range of Class 8 truck tractor operations. They characterize regional delivery operations,…
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Development in the Acquisition of Vehicle Loads Integrated with a Rigid and Flexible Multi-Body Model

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

NAVECO Ltd.-Tongfu Liu, Liukai Yuan, Tangyun Zhang
School of Mechanical Engineering, NUST-Tao Wang, Liangmo Wang
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-0856
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
As is known to all, the modeling of vehicles and durability simulation is becoming more accurate and more compatible with physical testing, resulting in shortening of the analysis process, and a lower cost. It would be more advantageous in the future to simulate the full vehicle system before the physical testing. Thus, in the analysis of vehicle durability performance, the need for more precise rigid and flexible vehicle modeling and more precise external loadings acquisition method is increasing.In view of the typical difficulties faced in the vehicle multi-body dynamics (MBD) simulation and in the associated loading extraction, this paper proposes a method to achieve accurate external vehicle loadings by virtual simulation. This method is performed based on the physical testing and compensates for the imperfections in the MBD modeling, thus being able to improve the quality of fatigue life prediction (FLP). Key technologies to implement this approach in this study include finite element analysis (FEA), MBD simulation and virtual iteration technique (VIT).A rigid and flexible multi-body dynamics model with less modes is constructed in order…
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A Polynomial Chaos-Based Method for Recursive Maximum Likelihood Parameter Estimation of Load Sensing Proportional Valve

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Dongfeng Motor Co. Ltd.-Ming Jiang
Huazhong University of Science and Tech.-Zeyu Ma, Jinglai Wu, Yunqing Zhang
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-0721
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
In this paper, a new computational method is provided to identify the uncertain parameters of Load Sensing Proportional Valve (LSPV) in a heavy truck brake system by using the polynomial chaos theory. The simulation model of LSPV is built in the software AMESim depending on structure of the valve, and the estimation process is implemented relying on the experimental measurements by pneumatic bench test. With the polynomial chaos expansion carried out by collocation method, the output observation function of the nonlinear pneumatic model can be transformed into a linear and time-invariant form, and the general recursive functions based on Newton method can therefore be reformulated to fit for the computer programming and calculation. To improve the estimation accuracy, the Newton method is modified with reference to Simulated Annealing algorithm by introducing the Metropolis Principle to control the fluctuation during the estimation process and escape from the local minima. The comparison between the introduced computational method and other estimation method indicates that the proposed method can be performed with higher convergence speed and robustness.
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Characteristic Analysis of Roll and Pitch Independently Controlled Hydraulically Interconnected Suspension

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Univ. of Technology Sydney-Guangzhong Xu, Nong Zhang
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-0870
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents the modeling and characteristic analysis of roll-plane and pitch-plane combined Hydraulically Interconnected Suspension (HIS) system. Vehicle dynamic analysis is carried out with four different configurations for comparison. They are: 1) vehicle with spring-damper only, 2) vehicle with roll-plane HIS, 3) vehicle with pitch-plane HIS and 4) vehicle with roll and pitch combined HIS. The modal analysis shows the unique modes-decoupling property of HIS system. The roll-plane HIS increases roll stiffness only without affecting other modes, and similarly pitch-plane HIS increases the pitch stiffness only with minimum influence on other modes. When roll and pitch plane HIS are integrated, the vehicle ride comfort and handling stability can be improved simultaneously without compromise. A detailed analysis and discussion of the results are provided to conclude the paper.
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A Computational Investigation of Ground Simulation for a Saloon Car

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Chalmers University of Technology-Lennart Lofdahl, Sven Rehnberg
Jaguar Land Rover-Sofie Koitrand, Adrian Gaylard
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-0615
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
Automotive aerodynamics measurements and simulations now routinely use a moving ground and rotating wheels (MVG&RW), which is more representative of on-road conditions than the fixed ground-fixed wheel (FG&FW) alternative. This can be understood as a combination of three elements: (a) moving ground (MVG), (b) rotating front wheels (RWF) and (c) rotating rear wheels (RWR). The interaction of these elements with the flow field has been explored to date by mainly experimental means.This paper presents a mainly computational (CFD) investigation of the effect of RWF and RWR, in combination with MVG, on the flow field around a saloon vehicle. The influence of MVG&RW is presented both in terms of a combined change from a FG&FW baseline and the incremental effects seen by the addition of each element separately.For this vehicle, noticeable decrease in both drag and rear lift is shown when adding MVG&RW, whereas front lift shows little change. The same trends are seen in both CFD and experimental data.The addition of MVG alone increases both drag and front lift, whereas rear lift decreases significantly. The…
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Research on Driving Posture Comfort Based on Relation between Drivers' Joint Angles and Joint Torques

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Wuhan University of Technology-Chuqi Su, Zhengzhong Chu
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-0460
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
Driving comfort is one of the most important indexes for automobile comfort. Driving posture comfort is closely related to the drivers' joint angles and joint torques. In present research, a new method is proposed to identify the most comfortable driving posture based on studying the relation between drivers' joint angles and joint torques. In order to truly reflect a driving situation, the accurate human driving model of 50 percent of the size of Chinese male is established according to the human body database of RAMSIS firstly. Biomechanical model based on accurate human driving model is also developed to analyze and obtain dynamic equations of human driving model by employing Kane method. The joint torque-angle curves of drivers' upper and lower limbs during holding wheel or pedal operation can be obtained through dynamic simulation in the MATLAB. Through curve-fitting analysis, the minimum joint torque of a driver' limb and the optimal joint angel can be found. As an important reference, these parameters can be used to optimize driving seat structure and offer an important support for…
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