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SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles
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Electromagnetic Actuator Dynamic Response Prediction for an Automated Mechanical Transmission

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

CEAS Western Michigan University-John Manyala, Massood Atashbar
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-2260
Published 2013-05-15 by SAE International in United States
Among the many advantages of the hybrid variants of Automated Mechanical Transmissions (AMTs) such as the Dual Clutch Transmission are faster gearshifts and excellent acceleration that comes from reduced drive-train losses without torque interrupts which translates into improved drive quality through smoother shifts. However, actuator system dynamics and controls remain critical challenges to attaining the full benefits of such AMT variants, which demands precise timing and coordination of the actuators. This paper presents a method for modeling a solenoid, including its non-linear electromagnetic characteristics. The model has been validated against experimental measurements. The significance of the work is that an efficient and robust method that allows precise predictions of a hydraulic valve pressure, flow through the system and the position of the hydraulic elements has been devised.
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Efficient, Active Radiator-Cooling System

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Argonne National Laboratory-Wenhua Yu
College of DuPage-David Smith
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-9017
Published 2013-05-15 by SAE International in United States
A new concept for an efficient radiator-cooling system is presented for reducing the size or increasing the cooling capacity of vehicle coolant radiators. Under certain conditions, the system employs active evaporative cooling in addition to conventional finned air cooling. In this regard, it is a hybrid radiator-cooling system comprised of the combination of conventional air-side finned surface cooling and active evaporative water cooling. The air-side finned surface is sized to transfer required heat under all driving conditions except for the most severe. In the later case, evaporative cooling is used in addition to the conventional air-side finned surface cooling. Together the two systems transfer the required heat under all driving conditions. However, under most driving conditions, only the air-side finned surface cooling is required. Consequently, the finned surface may be smaller than in conventional radiators that utilize air-side finned surface cooling exclusively. Results of this study include details of the hybrid system as well as radiator size and evaporative cooling loads at various evaporation rates. It is shown that a hybrid radiator with a 76-L/hr…
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Modelling and Simulation of Brake Booster Vacuum Pumps

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Pierburg Pump Technology Italy-Raffaele Squarcini
Politecnico di Torino-Massimo Rundo
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-9016
Published 2013-05-15 by SAE International in United States
Aim of this work is the development of a lumped parameters simulation model of single-vane vacuum pumps for pneumatically actuated brake boosters. Kinematic and fluid-dynamic models are integrated in a simulation environment to create a tool aimed at evaluating the vacuum pump performance and at guiding the designer during the prototype development. The paper describes extensively the mathematical model, the time domain simulation and experimental analyses performed on a camshaft mounted unit. Great emphasis is placed on the evaluation of the geometric quantities of the control volumes into which the vacuum pump has been divided. For each control volume the mass and energy conservation equations lead to the determination of the instantaneous pressure. The volume of each variable chamber and the respective angular derivative are calculated as function of the shaft position starting from the stator track profile supplied as a generic closed polyline. Flow areas between each chamber and the inlet/outlet volumes during a complete shaft revolution are evaluated directly from a data file containing the x-y coordinates of the passage area contour. Different…
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Compression Brake Noise with DPF and SCR

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Southwest Research Institute-George Bailey, Thomas Reinhart
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-1900
Published 2013-05-13 by SAE International in United States
Compression brake noise (also known as “Jake Brake” noise) has been a significant issue for heavy duty trucks for several decades. As a result of compression brake noise, there are many local ordinances in North America banning the use of engine brakes, and some countries such as Australia and South Africa have in the past considered total bans on compression brakes. Previous research showed that the primary problem is caused by operators who remove the OEM muffler system and replace it with a “straight stack” exhaust pipe with no sound reducing properties. On the other hand, even with the OEM exhaust system in place, compression brake noise is sometimes significant.The introduction of exhaust aftertreatment to meet stringent 2010 EPA emissions requirements (diesel particulate filters and selective catalytic reduction systems, DPF + SCR) provides two potential benefits for compression brake noise. The first benefit is that these aftertreatment devices are very good at attenuating noise in the exhaust stream. The second benefit is that aftertreatment systems make tampering with the exhaust system a very complex engineering…
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Mobility and Energy Efficiency Analysis of a Terrain Truck

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

TRW Automotive-Dennis Murphy
Univ. of Alabama-Vladimir V. Vantsevich
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-0672
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
While much research has focused on improving terrain mobility, energy and fuel efficiency of terrain trucks, only a limited amount of investigation has gone into analysis of power distribution between the driving wheels. Distribution of power among the driving wheels has been shown to have a significant effect on vehicle operating characteristics for a given set of operating conditions and total power supplied to the wheels. Wheel power distribution is largely a function of the design of the driveline power dividing units (PDUs).In this paper, 6×6/6×4 terrain truck models are analyzed with the focus on various combinations of PDUs and suspension systems. While these models were found to have some common features, they demonstrate several different approaches to driveline system design.In order to further investigate the effect of wheel power split on mobility and energy/fuel efficiency in conjunction with suspension characteristics, this paper provides an analytical method and mathematical model for the entire truck, including driveline system (sets of PDUs), suspension, and tires under various typical operating conditions. Interactions between longitudinal and normal truck dynamics…
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Optimal Torque Control for an Electric-Drive Vehicle with In-Wheel Motors: Implementation and Experiments

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

General Motors Company-Shih-Ken Chen, Baktiar Litkouhi
Univ. of Surrey-Saber Fallah
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-0674
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents the implementation of an off-line optimized torque vectoring controller on an electric-drive vehicle with four in-wheel motors for driver assistance and handling performance enhancement. The controller takes vehicle longitudinal, lateral, and yaw acceleration signals as feedback using the concept of state-derivative feedback control. The objective of the controller is to optimally control the vehicle motion according to the driver commands. Reference signals are first calculated using a driver command interpreter to accurately interpret what the driver intends for the vehicle motion. The controller then adjusts the braking/throttle outputs based on discrepancy between the vehicle response and the interpreter command. A test vehicle equipped with four in-wheel electric motors, vehicle sensors, communication buses, and dSPACE rapid prototyping hardware is instrumented and the control performance is verified through vehicle handling tests under different driving conditions.
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A Methodology to Assess Road Tankers Rollover Trend During Turning

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

CICATA, National Polytechnic Institute-Alejandro Lozano-Guzman
Queretaro Autonomous University-Jose Antonio Romero, Eduardo Betanzo-Quezada
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-0682
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
An experimental methodology is proposed to measure the rollover propensity of road tankers when subjected to lateral perturbations derived from steering manoeuvers. The testing principle involves subjecting a scaled down sprung tank to the elimination of a lateral acceleration, to analyze its rollover propensity as a function of various vehicle's operational and design parameters. Initial acceleration is generated through putting the scaled tank on a tilt table supported by a hydraulic piston. The controlled release of the fluid in the hydraulic system generates a perturbation situation for the tank, similar to the one that a vehicle experiences when leaving a curved section of the road and going to a straight segment. Durations for the maneuver and initial tilt angles characterize both the corresponding intensities of the steering maneuver. The use of this methodology to analyze the effect of fill level, initial acceleration and tank shape on the rollover propensity of a sprung tank suggests that for high fill levels an oval tank is up to three times more prone to rollover than the circular tank,…
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A Gain-Scheduled PID Controller for Automatic Path Following of a Tractor Semi-Trailer

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Beihang University-Nenggen Ding, Yipeng Zhang, Feng Gao, Guoyan Xu
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-0687
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
Improving driving safety and freeway capacity is an indispensable research issue for road vehicles, especially for tractor semi-trailers, which on the one hand exhibit unstable motion modes at high speeds due to their articulated configurations and undertake the largest part of freight transportation on freeways. Automatic driving is rated as the ultimate solution of vehicle safety since it can significantly reduce accidents resulting from human driver errors.Proposed in this paper is a gain-scheduled PID controller for automatic path-following of a tractor semi-trailer. The PID controller minimizes the vehicle's predicted lateral deviation and heading error with respect to the desired path at a preview point, and gains of the controller are scheduled with respect to vehicle speed. The gains of the controller at several given vehicle speeds are tuned using the orthogonal experimental design method (OEDM), based on comprehensive evaluation of lateral path deviation, steering angle input and vehicle stability index under a double lane change maneuver. The tuned gains are further fitted using linear and quadratic functions to form a gain-scheduled control system. The controller…
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Dynamic Load Estimation for Heavy Trucks on Bridge Structures

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Univ. of Michigan-Timothy Gordon, Mainak Mitra
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-0626
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
As part of a system for structural health monitoring, it is required to determine the spatial and temporal distributions of vertical loads arising from heavy trucks driven on flexible bridge structures. An instrumented truck is used to generate the input loads and estimate the load time histories. The truck can carry a range of sensors; however direct measurement of vertical tire loads between the tires and the structure is not considered realistic. The dynamic loads are to be estimated from the sensor outputs. These are affected by both truck and bridge dynamics and these must be accounted for within the load estimation process. Estimation may be susceptible to many factors including static mass distribution, vehicle longitudinal motion, variations in lateral position on the bridge, as well as any surface unevenness. The focus of this paper is on using high fidelity simulation models to develop appropriate methodologies for load estimation which optimize the use of sensors on the truck. The estimation methods are evaluated in the context of any loss of accuracy in the predicted bridge…
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In-Situ Real-Time Fuel Consumption Measurement Using Raw Exhaust Flow Meter and Zirconia AFR Sensor

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Horiba, Ltd.-Masanobu Akita, Hiroshi Nakamura, Masayuki Adachi
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-1058
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
Fuel efficiency is one of the most important parameters in advanced vehicles. Therefore, the measurement of fuel consumption in-situ and in real-time is obviously demanded in development and evaluation processes of new engines and vehicles. This paper describes a new concept for measuring fuel consumption in real-time, which utilizing raw exhaust gas flow rate and exhaust air-to-fuel ratio (AFR). The AFR is defined as the mass ratio of air and fuel supplied to the engine, and the mass flow rate of exhaust gas can be regarded as the summation of the mass flow rate of air and fuel. This means the fuel consumption can be calculated from exhaust flow rate and AFR.To realize in-situ, real-time measurement, we used an ultrasonic exhaust flow meter which can measure a wide flow range accurately with no pressure loss, and a fast response zirconia sensor which can be installed onto the exhaust pipe directly without any sampling system. This exhaust flow-AFR method has the advantage that the real-time fuel consumption can be easily obtained without delay time by these…
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