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ERRATUM: Modeling and Calibration of Combine, Impact Plate, Yield Sensors

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

John Deere MTIC-James Phelan
Univ. of Illinois-Ryan Eric Reinke
  • Journal Article
  • 2010-01-2002ERR
Published 2012-06-15 by SAE International in United States
The data shown in the previously published version of Figure 4 is from experiments performed with corn at 14%, rather than 21% as intended and indicated by the caption. The correct Figure 4, reflecting data from experiments performed with corn at 21%, should appear as shown in the erratum.
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Fuel Consumption Reduction by Geometry Variations on a Generic Tractor-Trailer Configuration

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

FluiDyna GmbH-Antoine Devesa, Thomas Indinger
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-0105
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
Although considerable efforts have been made with respect to the reduction of fuel consumption of trucks during the last decades, the diminishing natural resources as well as the evolution of the truck traffic require continuous improvements in the field of aerodynamics. Indeed, the forces generated by the air on the trucks may originate, depending on weather, road type, truck type, dimension, etc., up to 50% of the fuel consumption.In order to analyze the influence of proportion variations (mainly related to the length) and add-on devices on the aerodynamic performance of a truck, a representative model was first generated. This simplified geometry of a tractor-trailer was based on the geometrical data of six European OEMs: Daimler, Iveco, and MAN (tractors), Kögel, Krone and Schmitz Cargobull (trailers). The model included a reduced level of details (exterior mirrors, wheels, simplified underbody and engine block).The following processing chain was used for the numerical investigations. The grid generation tool, Spider, is an octree-based preprocessor producing boundary fitted, locally refined, conformal meshes, including hexahedral cell layers close to walls. The computational…
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Equivalence Unit Assumptions on Productivity and Capacity Evaluations

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

OlgunCelik-Tahsin Karaca, Murathan Soner, Sinan Ertunc, Mehmet Ali Arpacik, Mustafa Karaagac, Ahmet Kanbolat
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-0502
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
In addition to providing a wide product range and meeting individual requirements of the customers to make the companies able to orient themselves to the competitive conditions in the automotive industry, properly structuring a capacity-productivity calculation algorithm is of a great importance in obtaining a competitive price advantage. In cases product diversity is too wide, and finished products cannot be measured with a single unit, measuring the production efficiency gets complicated. In addition, the ability to analyze all the inputs and outputs of the production with a single unit based on the same value for enterprises instead of analysis of combined units carried out based on a single perspective when calculating the production efficiency of the enterprises underlies continuous improvement and being able to set goals for the processes.This study describes an integrated system design based on equivalence logic, which can set forth production efficiency and the capacity utilization level in many aspects. First, equivalence situation of the finished products compared to one another was evaluated based on parameters such as the machine time, the…
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Evaluation of Virtual NOx Sensor Models for Off Road Heavy Duty Diesel Engines

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Johannes Kepler University Linz-Stephan Stadlbauer, Daniel Alberer, Markus Hirsch, Luigi del Re
Liebherr Machines Bulle SA-Christian Benatzky
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-0358
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
NOx and PM are the critical emissions to meet the legislation limits for diesel engines. Often a value for these emissions is needed online for on-board diagnostics, engine control, exhaust aftertreatment control, model-based controller design or model-in-the-loop simulations. Besides the obvious method of measuring these emissions, a sensible alternative is to estimate them with virtual sensors.A lot of literature can be found presenting different modeling approaches for NOx emissions. Some are very close to the physics and the chemical reactions taking place inside the combustion chamber, others are only given by adapting general functions to measurement data. Hence, generally speaking, there is not a certain method which is seen as the solution for modeling emissions. Finding the best model approach is not straightforward and depends on the model application, the available measurement channels and the available data set for calibration.This paper evaluates three different already published virtual sensor approaches for NOx engine raw emissions of a heavy-duty diesel engine in off-road applications. The three proposals consist of a black box polynomial mean value model using…
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The Development of a Standard Test for Assessing the Effectiveness of Transit Vehicle Fire Extinguishing Systems

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Kidde Aerospace & Defense-Joey Peoples
Kidde Graviner Ltd-Adam Chattaway, Robert Dunster, Paul Weller
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-0986
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
Few standard approval tests exist for fire extinguishing systems for commercial vehicles, such as transit vehicles, coaches etc. Therefore, a representative test article has been constructed to evaluate the fire extinguishing performance of current in-house fire protection systems. This data will then be used as a benchmark against which the performance of future fire extinguishing systems can be judged.The test article is a fire-hardened simulation of a rear-engine transit bus. Several fire locations are used, in two configurations: “small” and “large”. The former encompasses diesel fuel spray fires and small, obscured diesel pool fires some containing additional wood chips; the latter represents a more developed diesel fuel spray and larger diesel pool fires. Tests have also been run simulating the ignition of a diesel fuel spray impinging on a hot turbocharger. Parameters pertaining to restrike have also been investigated.Suppression tests have been carried out varying the type and amount of fire extinguishing agent, the location of the nozzles, and the presence or absence of airflow. In addition, the application rate was varied for dry chemical…
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Emissions Certification Vehicle Cycles Based on Heavy Duty Engine Test Cycles

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Cummins Inc.-Morgan Andreae, Gary Salemme, Mahesh Kumar, Zhen Sun
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-0878
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
This paper describes the development vehicle cycles based on heavy duty engine test cycles for emissions certification. In the commercial vehicle and industrial equipment markets, emissions are evaluated using engine test cycles. For the on-highway market in the United States, these cycles include the transient heavy duty engine FTP test, and the steady state heavy duty engine SET test. Evaluation of engine only emissions is a practical approach given the diversity of applications, small volumes, and lack of vertical integration in the commercial vehicle market. However certain vehicle and powertrain characteristics can contribute significantly to fuel consumption and emissions. A number of approaches have been proposed to evaluate vehicle performance, and all of these vehicle evaluation methodologies require the selection of a vehicle cycle. If the engine test cycles and vehicle test cycles are not aligned, a technology evaluation will give different results depending on whether an engine test or vehicle test is used. With future regulations potentially allowing engine or vehicle test options, the alignment of the vehicle and engine test cycles is especially…
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Management of Energy Flow in Complex Commercial Vehicle Powertrains

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

IAV Automotive Engineering Inc.-Michael L. Traver
IAV GmbH-Peter Eckert, Lars Henning, Reza Rezaei, Joern Seebode, Steve Kipping, Kai Behnk
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-0724
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
After the realization of very low exhaust gas emissions and corresponding OBD requirements to fulfill Euro VI and Tier 4 legislation, the focus in heavy-duty powertrain development is on the reduction of fuel consumption and thus CO₂ emissions again. Besides this, the total vehicle operation costs play another major role. A holistic view of the overall powertrain system including the combustion process, exhaust gas aftertreatment, energy recuperation and energy storage is necessary in order to obtain the best possible system for a given application. A management system coordinating the energy flow between the different subsystems while guaranteeing low exhaust emissions plays a major part in operating such complex architectures under optimal conditions. A heuristically Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy (ECMS) is presented which obtains the optimal settings of control signals to determine optimum engine efficiency and emissions behavior in addition to the desired exhaust gas temperature. In a second approach, a model-based predictive controller (MPC) concept based on a linear battery model and static operating maps of the vehicle and engine is applied. The benefit of…
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Gear-Shift Strategy for a Clutchless Automated Manual Transmission in Battery Electric Vehicles

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Changchun Inst.of Engineering Tech.-Jianguo Zhang
State Key Lab. of ASC, Jilin University-Hongbo Liu, Yulong Lei, Zhanjiang Li, Youde Li
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-0115
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
The battery electric vehicles (BEVs) equipped with automated manual transmission (AMT) can realize gear-shift automatically and show many advantages in terms of reduction of fuel consumption and improvement of driving comfort and shifting quality. This paper focuses on the gear-shift control strategy for a clutchless AMT in a battery electric bus. Compared with the traditional ICE vehicles, the studied battery electric bus has the different powertrain structure, which consequently requires a different gear-shift strategy. First, the so-called clutchless AMT means that the clutch usually used in the conventional AMT vehicles is removed. Second, the synchronizer within the transmission is omitted and that means only the sleeves are employed to accomplish engagement of gears. In order to find the key factors that affect gear-shift operation of AMT in battery electric bus, the several gear-shift phases including “Gear Release”, “Synchronization”, and “Gear Engagement” are modeled. The analyses show that the gear-shift operation of clutchless AMT requires the motor with the capabilities of fast mode-switching (between torque output, speed control and free mode) and high-precise speed regulation. The…
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Waste Heat Recovery: The Next Challenge for Commercial Vehicle Thermomanagement

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Behr GmbH & Co. KG-Simon Edwards, Jochen Eitel, Eberhard Pantow, Peter Geskes, Rainer Lutz
Behr Thermal Systems Inc-John Tepas
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-1205
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
A significant driver for the development of future commercial vehicles is likely to be the introduction of fuel consumption related legislation in various regions around the world. The application of a waste heat recovery system to the powertrain of such vehicles is seen as a possible step, amongst many, to help them achieve the required fuel economy. In particular, the Rankine Cycle (a closed steam cycle) is often proposed as a potential means for deriving work from the engine exhaust heat.Rankine Cycle systems are already in use in off-highway applications, such as stationary engines or marine power-packs. However, the technical and commercial viability of these systems for on-highway, principally long haul truck application is as yet unproven. Aspects such as the in-use economy benefits, the system performance density, the component robustness and all interactions with the other vehicle systems have to be evaluated. These aspects translate into new challenges for suppliers of vehicle thermal management components and modules.In this paper, the simulation the Rankine Cycle system together with the complete vehicle infrastructure using in-house developed…
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Assessing the Regeneration Potential for a Refuse Truck Over a Real-World Duty Cycle

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Univ of Michigan-Andrej Ivanco, Rajit Johri, Zoran Filipi
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-1030
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
The majority of a refuse truck collection cycle consists of frequent Stop and Go events while moving from one household to another. The nature of this driving mission creates the opportunity to reduce fuel consumption by capturing and re-using the kinetic energy normally wasted during braking. This paper includes the evaluation of the brake energy available for regeneration from the conventional drivetrain; the description of the impact of the vehicle variable mass and auxiliary loads; a model validation over a real-world duty cycle; and the potential for an increase in fuel efficiency through hybridization of the drivetrain. The Hydraulic Hybrid (HH) technology is selected since it has a large power density. Special attention is paid to two main issues related to refuse truck modeling: i) the fact that each time the trash bin is picked up, the vehicle mass increases in a discrete manner; ii) the load from the additional auxiliary Power Take-Off unit used to lift and compact the refuse. The model of the complex vehicle system is validated with data from real-world refuse…
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