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SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles
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A 3D Semi-Empirical On-Road Transient Tire Model

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Anake Umsrithong
Virginia Tech.-Corina Sandu
  • Journal Article
  • 2010-01-1916
Published 2010-10-05 by SAE International in United States
To realistically predict the dynamics of a vehicle, the forces and moments in the contact patch must be accurately computed. A two-dimensional semi-empirical transient tire model was previously developed in the Advanced Vehicle Dynamics Lab (AVDL) at Virginia Tech, and extended the capabilities of the steady-state tire model also developed at AVDL. In this paper, a three-dimensional semi-empirical transient tire model is presented. The tire structure is modeled by an elastic ring supported on a spring and damper system. The elastic ring represents the belt ring and the spring and damper system represents the sidewall and the tread element. The analysis of the deformation of the tire structure with camber angle is performed on a flat surface to obtain the geometry of the contact patch and the normal pressure distribution. The forces and the moments are formulated using empirical data and based on theoretical mechanics. Illustrative simulations were performed for two scenarios: a driving/braking maneuver and a lane changing maneuver. The simulation results were compared with the 2D semi-empirical transient tire model results and with…
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Impact of Fiber Loading on Injection Molding Processing Parameter and Properties of Biocomposite

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Univ. of Saskatchewan-Satya Panigrahi
  • Journal Article
  • 2010-01-2026
Published 2010-10-05 by SAE International in United States
The research on using natural fibres as the reinforcement in plastic composites has increased dramatically in the last few years. Flax fibres are renewable resources with low specific mass, reduced energy consumption, and relatively low in cost. These advantages make flax fibres recognized as a potential replacement for glass fibres in composites. Among plastic, polyethylene was concluded to be a suitable material used as matrix in natural fibre reinforced biocomposites. However there are few studies on this area so far. In this paper, the processing method of flax fibre-reinforced polyethylene biocomposites is introduced. Flax fibre polyethylene biocomposite consists of flax fibre as the reinforcing component and high density polyethylene as the matrix. Acrylic acid pre-treatment was applied to flax fibre to improve the bonding between fibre and polyethylene. Extruding was used to mix materials and injection molding technique was carried out to process materials to certain shape biocomposites. The injection temperature and pressure were studied during injection molding to determine appropriate processing parameters for the biocomposites at different fibre content.
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Air Intake System Optimization for Acoustic Advantage on Automotive Vehicles

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Defiance Technologies-Shital Shah
Nissan Ashok Leyland Technologies-Shaiju M Belsus
  • Journal Article
  • 2010-01-1985
Published 2010-10-05 by SAE International in United States
Recently quietness has become an important quality parameter for automotive vehicles and as a result various improvements have been brought to reduce noise at system and vehicle level. Due to stringent noise emission norms on automotive vehicles and increasing desire of quieter in-cab performance by users, reduction of air intake noise tends to be an area of explanation. Air intake noise, which was relatively considered as a minor source of noise in the past, is now gaining importance.To reduce air intake noise basically resonator and expansion chamber are used on automotive vehicles. Resonators are widely used for noise reduction of intake and exhaust systems, but due to increased number of components, its associated cost; complexity of the system increases. The next option that is an expansion chamber prevents the formation of large amplitude standing waves and dissipates sound energy, however use of such a device reduces engine torque at narrow range of engine speeds.The objective of the paper is to propose a simple in construction, effective silencing device, which can achieve good results in minimizing…
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Systems to Silicon: A Complete System Approach to Power Semiconductor Selection for Environmentally Friendly Vehicles

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Delphi Corp.-Charles Sullivan, Robert J. Campbell, Tanto Sugiarto
  • Journal Article
  • 2010-01-1989
Published 2010-10-05 by SAE International in United States
A complete system approach to power semiconductor analysis and selection is set forth in this paper. In order to address design overkill, a suitable power profile across the desired drive schedule is obtained through vehicle simulation in lieu of worse case operating conditions. The representative profile is then applied to detailed models of the inverter, power device, and power device thermal stack-up in order to predict worse case, silicon junction temperature rise. The simulation stream includes a closed silicon thermal loop that leads to more accurate power loss and junction temperature calculations. The models are combined and exercised in a single platform for ease of integration and fast simulation. Herein, the methods will be applied to a working example of an inverter for motor drives, and analytical results will be reviewed.
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Effect of Drying Methods on the Physical and Structural Changes in Oil-Seed Flax Fiber

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Anand C. Tripathy
  • Journal Article
  • 2010-01-2024
Published 2010-10-05 by SAE International in United States
With the growing environmental concerns, biodegradable materials are gaining more importance. Biocomposites which are made from a combination of biological fiber such as flax and hemp together with plastics are finding a good number of applications in day to day life. Flax has good physical and mechanical properties that can be utilized in areas like construction, biomedical & bioproducts and electronics applications. The quality of fiber depends upon various unit operations used in the processing. Drying is one of the most important unit operations which significantly affect the quality of the fiber. The method of drying for removal of moisture from the fiber significantly affects the drying time and quality. In the present study the raw flax fiber was subjected to drying before and after chemical treatment. The physical properties such as; tensile strength, color and structural changes were measured for raw and chemically treated flax fibers. The diameter range was in-between 30-300 μm the tensile strength recorded for the entire range and was found to vary between 16 to 667 MPa and the elastic…
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Oil Palm Fiber Biocomposite for Automotive Industries

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Univ. of Saskatchewan-Satya Panigrahi
  • Journal Article
  • 2010-01-2030
Published 2010-10-05 by SAE International in United States
The properties of oil palm fiber were estimated and compared with oil seed flax and industrial hemp fibers. Biocomposite of oil palm fiber and linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) was manufactured. The effect of fiber size, fiber content and fiber treatment on dimensional stability of the biocomposite was studied. The true density of oil palm fiber is found to be 1503 kg m-₃. The oil palm fibers obtained from field contained nearly one-fourth impurities, and the equilibrium moisture contents (EMC) values of fibers nearly doubled with 25% increase in relative humidity. The dielectric constant of oil palm fiber was in the range of 7.76-8.31. The oil palm fiber resulted in thermograms with two endothermic peaks and three exothermic peaks with the first degradation temperature at 301.71°C. Alkali treatment reduced first degradation temperature to 297.1°C. The specific heat capacity of oil palm fiber varied from 1.083 J g-₁ °C-₁ to 3.317 J g-₁ °C-₁ in the temperature range of 20°C to 150°C. A sharp increase in composite thickness swelling upon immersion in water was observed in…
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Waste Heat Recovery Concept to Reduce Fuel Consumption and Heat Rejection from a Diesel Engine

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

AVL POWERTRAIN ENGINEERING-Ho Teng
  • Journal Article
  • 2010-01-1928
Published 2010-10-05 by SAE International in United States
Fuel economy is critical for heavy-duty line haul applications. As fuel prices rise and impending fuel economy regulations are implemented, new ways to improve heavy-vehicle fuel economy will be in high demand. AVL Powertrain Engineering has undertaken a research and development project to demonstrate the feasibility of a Rankine Cycle Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) system. The goals of the project were to reduce the overall engine heat rejection, specific emissions and fuel consumption (CO₂ emissions) of heavy-duty diesel engines by converting heat that is typically wasted to the exhaust stack and through the EGR cooler to useable mechanical energy. A detailed thermodynamic analysis was conducted which laid the groundwork for working fluid selection and proper sizing of the WHR components. Based on the system specifications, a prototype WHR system was designed and built. The performance of the system was evaluated on a 10.8-liter heavy-duty on-highway diesel engine.
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In Fleet Testing of Fuel Saving Measures

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Rust College-Sujata Sinha PhD
Sinhatech-Sumon Kumar Sinha
  • Journal Article
  • 2010-01-2038
Published 2010-10-05 by SAE International in United States
An economical method for reliably determining fleet fuel savings that arises out of the application of a vehicle fuel saving measure is presented. The method relies on testing the device on a random sample of vehicles during normal fleet operations. The sample size is determined by variations in fuel economy inherent in the fleet and the minimum increase in fuel economy needed for a desired return on investment in the device. This reduces the probability that the sample is biased. The sample fuel economy is compared to that of an untreated control group of trucks which can be the rest of the fleet or a subset with certain characteristics, like similar idling percentage. The final results provide a range of fuel economy enhancements at a given confidence level. The method has been applied to validate in operation fuel economy increase of a flatbed tractor trailer fleet due to Sinhatech's Deturbulator aero-drag reducing device.
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Meeting the US Heavy-Duty EPA 2010 Standards and Providing Increased Value for the Customer

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Cummins Inc.-Steve Charlton, Thomas Dollmeyer, Thomas Grana
  • Journal Article
  • 2010-01-1934
Published 2010-10-05 by SAE International in United States
The paper will discuss the design and development of heavy-duty diesel engines to meet the US EPA 2010 on-highway standards - 0.2 g/HP-hr NOx and 0.01 g/HP-hr particulate matter (PM). In meeting these standards a combination of in-cylinder control and aftertreatment control for both NOx and particulate has been used.For NOx control, a combination of cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is used. The SCR catalyst uses copper zeolite to achieve high levels of NOx conversion efficiency with minimal ammonia slip and unparalleled thermal durability.For particulate control, a diesel particulate filter (DPF) with upstream oxidation catalyst (DOC) is used. While the DPF may be actively regenerated when required, it operates predominantly with passive regeneration - enabled by the high NOx levels between the engine and the DPF, associated with high efficiency SCR systems and NO₂ production across the DOC.The engine features a proprietary high pressure common rail fuel system (HPCR), developed jointly by Cummins and Scania. This HPCR system was developed for medium- and heavy-duty engines and is known as XPI.…
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Investigating Control of Vision Based Autonomous Navigation in the Image Plane

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

North Carolina State University-Rachana Ashok Gupta, Wesley Snyder, W Shepherd Pitts
  • Journal Article
  • 2010-01-2005
Published 2010-10-05 by SAE International in United States
This paper develops a novel integrated navigational system for autonomous vehicle motion control. Vehicle control is defined in terms of the required vehicle steering angle, rate of steering change and speed. This paper proposes predictive control in the image plane. The proposed predictive control enables the navigation on the desired path, reduces the control complexity and increases the application space for multiple types of vehicles. The paper investigates vehicle control stability; especially in scenarios containing varying curvature turns and variable vehicle speeds. The primary emphasis of this paper is on vehicle control rather than scene analysis. To demonstrate the proposed vehicle control, a computer vision based multi-lane detection algorithm is introduced. The control strategy is applied such that the vehicle maintains position within the lane boundaries. Stability of the control algorithm is tested and demonstrated in multiple scenarios using 3-D simulation results.
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