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Development of Flax Fibre Reinforced Biocomposites for Potential Application for Automotive Industries

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada-E. K. Mupondwa
University of Saskatchewan-S. Panigrahi, X. Li, L. Tabil, K. Barghout, R. L. Kushwaha
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-2867
Published 2009-10-06 by SAE International in United States
{ Natural fibre-reinforced composite has the potential to replace current materials used for automotive industrial applications. Oilseed flax fibre could be used as reinforcement for composites because it is readily available, environmentally friendly and possesses good mechanical properties. In this research, oilseed flax fibre reinforced-LLDPE and -HDPE biocomposites were developed through extrusion and injection molding. The flax fibre was chemically treated to improve the bond between the fibre and polymer. Flax fibre was mixed with low linear density polyethylene (LLDPE) and high density polyethylene (HDPE) with fibre content varying from 10 to 30% by mass and processed by extrusion and injection molding to biocomposites. The mechanical properties, surface properties, and thermal properties of biocomposites were measured to analyze the treatment and processing effect and to compare the effect of different flax fibre concentrations on the biocomposites. Results showed that developed biocomposites had good properties compared to with pure plastic. Increasing fibre content increased tensile strengths and water absorption; it also decreased molding shrinkage and melting point of biocomposites. The factors in the injection process were…
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Hydraulic Fluid Viscosity Selection for Improved Fuel Economy

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Evonik RohMax USA-Steven N. Herzog, Michael Zink
Milwaukee School of Engineering-Paul W. Michael
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-2845
Published 2009-10-06 by SAE International in United States
Multiple field trials and nearly a decade of laboratory studies have demonstrated that shear stable multigrade hydraulic fluids improve fuel economy. These studies have determined that fuel efficiency is dependent upon temperature, fluid viscosity and shear stability. This paper presents a viscosity classification system proposed by the National Fluid Power Association (NFPA) Fluids Technical Committee. This system is analogous to the SAE J300 viscosity classification system for engine oils. The letter “L” is used in place of “W” as the designation for the low temperature grade. Under this new classification system, NFPA 32L-68 fluids will provide the low temperature viscosity properties of an ISO VG 32 hydraulic fluid and the high temperature viscosity properties of an ISO VG 68. In addition, fluids that meet the requirements of the proposed NFPA Energy Efficient classification system increase fuel economy and productivity while reducing CO2 emissions. A summary of field trial results and explanation of the proposed NFPA Energy Efficient viscosity classification system are provided.
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Simulation of Cooling Airflow and Surface Temperature of a Midsize Truck

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Dongfeng Motor Co. Ltd.-He Li, Jiang Guangfu, Meng Guodong, Li Lan
Exa Corporation-Bing Xu, Heinz Friz, Keiko Abe, Jaehoon Han, Ales Alajbegovic
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-2894
Published 2009-10-06 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents a simulation of the cooling airflow and surface temperatures of a midsize truck. The simulation uses full detailed geometry of the truck. Performance of the under-hood cooling airflow is analyzed and potential design changes leading to better cooling airflow are highlighted. Surface temperature over certain under-hood part is studied. Possible optimizations using various material and configurations are proposed. It is shown that the presented simulation approach provides valuable information to evaluate cooling system and thermal protection performance. Fast design iterations can be achieved using this approach.
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Development of Flax oil-based Biopolymer for Biocomposites

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

University of Portsmouth-H. N.Dhakal
University of Saskatchewan-S. Panigrahi, X. Li, S. Panigrahi, R. L. Kushwaha
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-2869
Published 2009-10-06 by SAE International in United States
Flax oil is the main goal of growing flaxseed. Flax oil has been used for nutrition, food, paint binder, putty, and wood finish. However, synthetic resin from flax oil has not been developed. In this paper we will develop a biopolymer derived from flax oil and the goal is to use it as a resin to produce a viable, biodegradable composite using natural fiber as reinforcement. First, the functionalization of the triglyceride group of the flax oil fatty acids with polymerizable chemical groups was studied. The triglyceride molecule of flax oil was epoxidized by the reaction of double bonds in the fatty acid with a peroxy acid (formic acid) to get epoxidized oil; the epoxidized oil was then reacted with ethylenically substituted carboxylic acid (acrylic acid) to form acrylated epoxidized flax oil. Polymer resins were prepared from flax oil by blending acrylated epoxidized flax oil with styrene and a free radical initiator. The characterization of developed polymer and the intermediates during processing were investigated. This technology will add value to flax oil by converting it…
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Design and Control of Hybrid Electric Power System for a Hydraulically Actuated Excavator

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Doosan Infracore Co., Ltd.-Seungjin Yoo, Sangjun An, Cheol-Gyu Park, Nagin Kim
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-2927
Published 2009-10-06 by SAE International in United States
In this paper, a prototype hybrid excavator that incorporates two electric motors and an ultra-capacitor module in a commercial diesel engine powered hydraulic excavator is presented. The features of the developed hybrid excavator include (1) electric propulsion of the swing system, (2) electric power assistance for the diesel engine and (3) energy regeneration using an ultra-capacitor module. By designing a suitable swing control and power management algorithm, the developed hybrid electric power system can significantly improve the fuel economy of the diesel powered hydraulic excavator, without any performance degradation or drivability deterioration.
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Real Time Implementation of DOC-DPF Models on a Production-Intent ECU for Controls and Diagnostics of a PM Emission Control System

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Pi Shurlok, LLC-Nishit Nagar, Xiaolai He, Vikram Iyengar, Nirav Acharya, Arkadiusz Kalinowski
Tenneco Inc.-Adam Kotrba, Timothy Gardner, Argun Yetkin
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-2904
Published 2009-10-06 by SAE International in United States
This paper describes the joint development by Tenneco and Pi Shurlok of a complete diesel engine aftertreatment system for controlling particulate matter emissions. The system consists of a DOC, DPF, sensors, controller and an exhaust fuel injection system to allow active DPF regeneration.The mechanical components were designed for flow uniformity, low backpressure and component durability. The overall package is intended as a complete PM control system solution for OEMs, which does not require any significant additions to the OEM's engine control strategies and minimizes integration complexity. Thus, to make it easier to adapt to different engine platforms, ranging from small off-road vehicle engines to large locomotive engines, model-based control algorithms were developed in preference to map-based controls.Pi's recently-developed general-purpose OpenECU electronic controller, based on the MPC-5534 processor core, was applied to run the advanced 1-D DOC and 0-D lumped DPF thermo-chemical models in real time to control the fuel injection system. The system was integrated with a Cummins 5.9 L engine in the engine dynamometer laboratory at Tenneco. The control algorithm and models were first…
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Investigation into Ash Loading and Its Relationship to DPF Regeneration Method

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Hitachi High-Technologies Corporation-M. Arai, N. Yoshimoto, T. Inoue
Hitachi Metals Ltd.-T. Ishizawa, H. Yamane, H. Satoh, K. Sekiguchi
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-2882
Published 2009-10-06 by SAE International in United States
A diesel particulate filter (DPF) controls and maintains a constant pressure drop across the filter by repeating the regeneration process for PM (Particulate Matter). However, the regeneration results in ash accumulation on the DPF. Although this ash accumulation is very slow, it eventually causes increased pressure drop which affects the product life of the DPF.Metal elements in the lubricant additives in the engine oil are the source of the ash. Since ash is an oxidized substance, the amount of ash produced depends on such factors as the amount of oil consumed in the engine and the kinds of lubricant additives contained in engine oil. According to the reference literature [1-3], ash accumulates on a DPF differently depending on use of either a passive regeneration system or an active regeneration system. With the passive regeneration system, ash accumulates uniformly on the filter wall while ash accumulates near the outlet of the filter with the active regeneration system. Even though the amount of ash collected on the filter is same regardless of the regeneration method, the difference…
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Consideration of Critical Cornering Control Characteristics via Driving Simulator that Imparts Full-range Drift Cornering Sensations

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Kogakuin University-Hiromichi Nozaki
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd.-Masayuki Shimizu, Makoto Sakuno
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-2922
Published 2009-10-06 by SAE International in United States
A driving simulator capable of duplicating the critical sensations incurred during a spin, or when a driver is engaged in drift cornering, was constructed by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., and Hiromichi Nozaki of Kogakuin University. Specifically, the simulator allows independent movement along three degrees of freedom and is capable of exhibiting extreme yaw and lateral acceleration behaviors. Utilizing this simulator, the control characteristics of drift cornering have become better understood. For example, after a J-turn behavior experiment involving yaw angle velocity at the moment when the drivers attention transitions to resuming straight ahead driving, it is now understood that there are major changes in driver behavior in circumstances when simulator motions are turned off, when only lateral acceleration motion is applied, when only yaw motion is applied, and when combined motions (yaw + lateral acceleration) are applied. Therefore, it is now understood that drivers responded chiefly to yawing and lateral acceleration by providing feedback to the motion, thus clarifying the characteristics of counter steering. From observations of the driver's eye-tracking and perspiration levels, it is…
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Analysis of Driving Crisis for Obstacles Avoidance and Dynamic Stability Maintenance Using Fuzzy Logic

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Zanjan University-Mohsen Davoudi, Mehdi Davoudi
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-2875
Published 2009-10-06 by SAE International in United States
In this paper, we explain the process of designing fuzzy based analyzers which can be installed in a vehicle. These analyzers use some kinds of sensors to determine the crisis of driving situation. This system helps a driver to be aware of the danger of the obstacles, other vehicles on the road, fatigue and environment noises. An alarm massage concentrates the driver attention while s/he is doing something that may distract the attention. A different fuzzy controller using electronically controller of the Brakes/Steering/Suspension systems controls the vehicle to avoid the obstacles and also maintain the kinetic balance of the vehicle by mean of dynamic stability analysis. An advantage of this controller is that it doesn't interfere with the driver's habit in vehicle control and it resumes functioning only in critical moments. Using various actuators and sensors, we introduce a new approach to detect driving and stability crisis. This makes the proposed fuzzy analyzer a novel one.
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Technology Breakthrough Achieves Objectives for SAE Preload Targets in Heavy Duty Wheel Ends

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Temper® Axle Products Corporation-John E. Rode, Raymond Piascik
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-2887
Published 2009-10-06 by SAE International in United States
Patents granted recently to Mr. Rode have changed the industry capability to adjust and verify wheel-end bearings on trucks. Until now it was believed1 that there was nothing available to confirm or verify the most desirable settings of preload on these bearings. The new, breakthrough invention is a tool and spindle-locking nut that permit quick and accurate wheel bearing adjustment by utilizing direct reading force measurement. Bearings can be set to either SAE recommended preloads or specific endplay settings. The author has been working on bearing adjustment methods for industrial applications for over forty years, and considers these inventions to be his most important breakthrough for solving this elusive bearing adjustment problem. Consistent wheel bearing preload adjustment was not possible before, even though it was widely known to achieve the best wheel performance as noted in SAE specification J2535 and re-affirmed in 2006 by the SAE Truck and Bus Wheel Subcommittee. Initial commercialization of the new technology with a field ready tool has been accomplished. The associated lock nut is a premium product with a…
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