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Summary and Progress of the Hydrogen ICE Truck Development Project

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Musashi Institute of Technology-Kaname Naganuma, Kimitaka Yamane, Yasuo Takagi
National Traffic Safety and Environment Laboratory-Atsuhiro Kawamura, Tadanori Yanai, Yoshio Sato
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-1922
Published 2009-06-15 by SAE International in United States
A development project for a hydrogen internal combustion engine (ICE) system for trucks supporting Japanese freightage has been promoted as a candidate for use in future vehicles that meet ultra-low emission and anti-global warming targets. This project aims to develop a hydrogen ICE truck that can handle the same freight as existing trucks. The core development technologies for this project are a direct-injection (DI) hydrogen ICE system and a liquid hydrogen tank system which has a liquid hydrogen pump built-in. In the first phase of the project, efforts were made to develop the DI hydrogen ICE system.Over the past three years, the following results have been obtained: A high-pressure hydrogen gas direct injector developed for this project was applied to a single-cylinder hydrogen ICE and the indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) corresponding to a power output of 147 kW in a 6-cylinder hydrogen ICE was confirmed. In addition, nitrogen oxide (NOx) was reduced with a high thermal efficiency by the optimization of the EGR ratio, the injection timing and the ignition timing. From these results,…
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Realization of Ground Effects on Snowmobile Pass-by Noise Testing

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Michigan Technological University-Brandon J. Dilworth, Jason R. Blough
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-2229
Published 2009-05-19 by SAE International in United States
Noise concerns regarding snowmobiles have increased in the recent past. Current standards, such as SAE J192 are used as guidelines for government agencies and manufacturers to regulate noise emissions for all manufactured snowmobiles. Unfortunately, the test standards available today produce results with variability that is much higher than desired. The most significant contributor to the variation in noise measurements is the test surface. The test surfaces can either be snow or grass and affects the measurement in two very distinct ways: sound propagation from the source to the receiver and the operational behavior of the snowmobile. Data is presented for a known sound pressure speaker source and different snowmobiles on various test days and test surfaces. Relationships are shown between the behavior of the sound propagation and track interaction to the ground with the pass-by noise measurements.
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Localization of Truck Noise Sources under Passby Conditions Using Acoustic Beamforming Methods

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Caltrans-Bruce Rymer
Illingworth & Rodkin, Inc.-Paul R. Donavan
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-2232
Published 2009-05-19 by SAE International in United States
Acoustic beamforming was used to visualize the sound radiation of trucks under test track passby and actual highway operating conditions. The purpose of these measurements was to obtain an understanding of which sources contribute to the overall passby noise level and to determine the vertical distribution of noise sources. For trucks, drive axle tires were found to be the major contributor to passby noise at highway speeds, followed by powertrain noise to a much less degree, and very occasionally, exhaust stack outlet noise. For medium and heavy trucks, the acoustic mean source height was found to be about 0.5m and about 0.3m for light vehicles.
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Response of a Prototype Truck Hood to Transient Aerodynamic Loading

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Exa Corporation-Anurag Gupta, Joaquin I. Gargoloff, Bradley D. Duncan
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-1156
Published 2009-04-20 by SAE International in United States
A study was performed to determine the fluid structure interaction (FSI) for a prototype truck hood for transient aerodynamic loads. The growing need to make vehicle panels lighter to enhance the fuel economy of vehicles has made hood panels more prone to deformation and vibration from aerodynamic loads. Moreover, as global pedestrian crash standards become more stringent to provide safer front end designs to minimize injuries to head and leg, automotive manufacturers are being required to design flexible hoods that crush significantly more than the present designs to absorb the crash energy better. These flexible designs lead to potentially undesirable deformations and/or vibration behavior of the hood at typical highway speeds. This paper presents a methodology for performing fluid structure interaction computations for a typical hood by detailing the process of computing dynamic (time varying) aerodynamic loads using CFD and related deformations of the hood using commercial structural solvers. The Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) was employed for performing transient Computational Fluid Dynamics analysis, and commercial finite element analysis (FEA) software was used for structural calculations.…
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Robust Design of a Pneumatic Brake System in Commercial Vehicles

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Huazhong University of Science & Technology, China-Jinglai Wu, Hongchang Zhang, Yunqing Zhang, Liping Chen
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-0408
Published 2009-04-20 by SAE International in United States
The air brake system has been widely used since its great superiority over many other kinds of brake systems, but the capacity and the stability of air brake system are determined by many factors which are always uncertain and difficult to be evaluated accurately. So it is necessary to improve the robustness of this kind of brake system. In this paper, a physical model of air brake control system is made by a multi-domain physical modeling software-AMESim and the robust design for air brake system is carried out. Firstly, the key design parameters that will greatly affect on the delay time and pressure that leads to the shaking problem are obtained by using the method of design of experiment (DOE). Then, the regress of the response surface based on results of DOE and the robust design using the tolerance design are carried out. The value for those key parameters that can lead to the best performance and robustness of the air brake system are finally determined.
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Comparison of Heavy Truck Engine Control Unit Hard Stop Data with Higher-Resolution On-Vehicle Data

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

SEA, Ltd.-Fawzi P. Bayan, Anthony D. Cornetto, Ashley Dunn, C. Brian Tanner, Eric S. Sauer, Brian Boggess, Douglas R. Morr, Rickey L. Stansifer, Scott A. Noll
The Ohio State University-Grant J. Heydinger, Dennis A. Guenther
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-0879
Published 2009-04-20 by SAE International in United States
Engine control units (ECUs) on heavy trucks have been capable of storing “last stop” or “hard stop” data for some years. These data provide useful information to accident reconstruction personnel. In past studies, these data have been analyzed and compared to higher-resolution on-vehicle data for several heavy trucks and several makes of passenger cars. Previous published studies have been quite helpful in understanding the limitations and/or anomalies associated with these data. This study was designed and executed to add to the technical understanding of heavy truck event data recorders (EDR), specifically data associated with a modern Cummins power plant ECU. Emergency “full-treadle” stops were performed at many combinations of load-speed-surface coefficient conditions. In addition, brake-in-curve tests were performed on wet Jennite for various conditions of disablement of the braking system. This study shows how the ECU data compares to higher-resolution data acquired by independent data acquisition computers and transducers. The goal of this study was to help accident reconstruction professionals better understand engine ECU “hard stop” data currently available on most commercial vehicles.
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Design Considerations for Hydrogen Management System on Ford Hydrogen Fueled E-450 Shuttle Bus

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Ford Motor Company-Alan Richardson, Ravi Gopalakrishnan
Mahle Powertrain, LLC-Tejas Chhaya, Stephen Deasy, Jacob Kohn
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-1422
Published 2009-04-20 by SAE International in United States
As part of a continuous research and innovation effort, Ford Motor Company has been evaluating hydrogen as an alternative fuel option for vehicles with internal combustion engines since 1997. Ford has recently designed and built an Econoline (E-450) shuttle bus with a 6.8L Triton engine that uses gaseous hydrogen fuel. Safe practices in the production, storage, distribution, and use of hydrogen are essential for the widespread public and commercial acceptance of hydrogen vehicles. Hazards and risks inherent in the application of hydrogen fuel to internal combustion engine vehicles are explained. The development of a Hydrogen Management System (H2MS) to detect hydrogen leaks in the vehicle is discussed, including the evolution of the H2MS design from exploration and quantification of risks, to implementation and validation of a working system on a vehicle. System elements for detection, mitigation, and warning are examined. Various analysis techniques are used to show the effectiveness of the chosen design.
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Next-generation Ejector Cycle for Truck-transport Refrigerator

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

DENSO Corporation-Etsuhisa Yamada, Haruyuki Nishijima, Hideya Matsui, Toshio Ueno, Masami Taniguchi, Akira Fujita
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-0973
Published 2009-04-20 by SAE International in United States
The development of energy-saving technologies is in great demand recently to stop global warming. We are committed to developing the Ejector Cycle as an energy-saving technology for refrigerating air conditioners. The ejector, which is an energy-saving technological innovation, improves the efficiency of the refrigeration cycle by effectively using the expansion energy that is lost in the conventional steam-compression cycle, and is applicable to almost all steam-compression refrigerating air conditioners, thus improving the efficiency of the refrigeration cycle. Concerning the application of the Ejector Cycle in truck-transport refrigerators, we previously released Ejector Cycle products for large and medium-size freezer trucks, which have been favorably accepted by custom-ers.We attempted to develop a new Ejector Cycle for application in compact refrigerators, and succeeded in completing a commercial compact refrigerator incorporating a next-generation Ejector Cycle that substantially improves performance. This paper introduces the development.
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Knowledge Extraction from Real-World Logged Truck Data

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Halmstad University-Thomas Grubinger, Nicholas Wickström
Volvo AB-Anders Björklund, Magnus Hellring
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-1026
Published 2009-04-20 by SAE International in United States
In recent years more data is logged from the electronic control units on-board in commercial vehicles. Typically, the data is transferred from the vehicle at the workshop to a centralized storage for future analysis. This vast amount of data is used for debugging, as a knowledgebase for the design engineer and as a tool for service planning.Manual analysis of this data is often time consuming, due to the rich amount of information contained. However, there is an opportunity to automatically assist in the process based on knowledge discovery techniques, even directly when the trucks data is first offloaded at the workshop. One typical example of how this technique could be helpful is when two groups of trucks behave differently, e.g. one well-functioning group and one faulty group, when the two groups have the same specification. The desired information is the specific difference in the logged data, e.g. what particular sensors or signals are different.An evaluation cycle is proposed and applied to extract knowledge from three different large real-world data-sets measured on Volvo long haulage trucks.…
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A Statistical Analysis of Data from Heavy Vehicle Event Data Recorders

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Accident Dynamics Research Center-Jeffery W. Muttart
Messerschmidt Safety Consulting-William F. Messerschmidt
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-0880
Published 2009-04-20 by SAE International in United States
The most common trigger for event data collection in Heavy Vehicle1 ECMs is a sudden decrease in the calculated vehicle speed. The calculated vehicle speed is a by-product of programmed calibrations and measured wheel speed data. In some cases, as is the case with Detroit Diesel ECMs, event data are recorded when the vehicle transitions from a driving state to a stopped state. Event data are reported with respect to time when the calculated vehicle speed change exceeds the preset threshold value or the first recorded 0 mph value. Because the data are not necessarily centered on the collision event itself, determination of impact speed and analysis of driver response can be problematic. A statistical evaluation of crash and non-crash related Heavy Vehicle Event Data Recorder (HVEDR) reports was conducted to identify specific measurable characteristics that can be used to identify the time of impact within reported event data. Statistically significant differences appeared between the data from crash-related reports and data from non crash-related reports, using both within- and between-subjects tests. Specifically, sudden changes in…
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