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SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles
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Empirical Investigation on the Effects of Rolling Resistance and Weight on Fuel Economy of Medium-Duty Trucks

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

AxleTech, USA-Molly O’Malley
Primus Solutions Inc., USA-Brandon Card
  • Journal Article
  • 02-12-03-0016
Published 2019-08-28 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle rolling resistance and weight are two of the factors that affect fuel economy. The vehicle tire rolling resistance has a more significant influence than aerodynamics drags on fuel economy at lower vehicle speeds, particularly true for medium- and heavy-duty trucks. Less vehicle weight reduces inertia loads, uphill grade resistance, and rolling resistance. The influence of weight on the fuel economy can be considerable particularly in light- to medium-duty truck classes because the weight makes up a larger portion of gross vehicle weight. This article presents an empirical investigation and a numerical analysis of the influences of rolling resistance and weight on the fuel economy of medium-duty trucks. The experimental tests include various tires and payloads applied on a total of 21vehicle configurations over three road profiles. These tests assessed the sensitivity of the vehicle’s fuel economy toward rolling resistance and weight. Several experimental results showed inconsistent and counterintuitive trends of the effects of rolling resistance coefficients and weights on fuel economy. The consequences of rolling resistance and vehicle payload are compound and influenced by…
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Application of Multi-Attribute Weighted Gray Target Decision in Automobile Noise Reduction Scheme Evaluation

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Nanjing Institute of Technology, China-Zhendong Zhao
  • Journal Article
  • 02-12-03-0014
Published 2019-07-03 by SAE International in United States
In the selection of automobile noise reduction schemes, the lack of comprehensive quantitative index system and objective evaluation method is a serious problem. In this article, the methods of analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and gray target decision were used to solve the problem. Firstly, AHP and gray target decision method were introduced respectively in detail. Secondly, three automobile noise reduction schemes were illustrated. Four types of data were selected as the decision indexes, and the weight coefficients of all the decision indexes were calculated using the AHP. Then multi-attribute mixed weighted gray target decision model was established. The optimum scheme was obtained by the calculation of the off-target distance and the sorting of the calculation results. The proposed method can quantify the evaluation process and overcome the disadvantages of the traditional analogy method. The example shows that the method is feasible.
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Speed Planning and Prompting System for Commercial Vehicle Based on Real-Time Calculation of Resistance

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Wuhan University of Technology, China-Zhaocong Sun, Zhimin Li, Jinyi Xia, Gangfeng Tan
  • Journal Article
  • 02-12-03-0013
Published 2019-06-25 by SAE International in United States
When commercial vehicles drive in a mountainous area, the complex road condition and long slopes cause frequent acceleration and braking, which will use 25% more fuel. And the brake temperature rises rapidly due to continuous braking on the long-distance downslopes, which will make the brake drum fail with the brake temperature exceeding 308°C [1]. Meanwhile, the kinetic energy is wasted during the driving progress on the slopes when the vehicle rolls up and down. Our laboratory built a model that could calculate the distance from the top of the slope, where the driver could release the accelerator pedal. Thus, on the slope, the vehicle uses less fuel when it rolls up and less brakes when down. What we do in this article is use this model in a real vehicle and measure how well it works. Thus, to improve the safety and economy of commercial vehicles on mountainous areas, the Vehicle Speed Planning and Prompting System based on real-time calculation of resistance is established. The system consists of four parts: Hardware on Vehicle, Microcontroller Unit…
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Electrifying Long-Haul Freight—Part I: Review of Drag, Rolling Resistance, and Weight Reduction Potential

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

University of Kansas, USA-Christopher Depcik, Anmesh Gaire, Jamee Gray, Zachary Hall, Anjana Maharjan, Darren Pinto, Arno Prinsloo
  • Journal Article
  • 02-12-03-0017
Published 2019-09-05 by SAE International in United States
Electric heavy-duty tractor-trailers (EHDTT) offer an important option to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) for the transportation sector. However, to increase the range of the EHDTT, this effort investigates critical vehicle design features that demonstrate a gain in overall freight efficiency of the vehicle. Specifically, factors affecting aerodynamics, rolling resistance, and gross vehicle weight are essential to arrive at practical input parameters for a comprehensive numerical model of the EHDTT, developed by the authors in a subsequent paper. For example, drag reduction devices like skirts, deturbulators, vortex generators, covers, and other commercially available apparatuses result in an aggregated coefficient of drag of 0.367. Furthermore, a mixed utilization of single-wide tires and dual tires allows for an optimized trade-off between low rolling resistance tires, traction, and durability. Lastly, a combination of different lightweight vehicle components manufactured from aluminum and magnesium alloys, carbon fiber composites, titanium, and high-strength steel presents a substantial reduction in overall vehicle weight. Overall, a comparison of a potential EHDTT with a standard Class-8 heavy-duty tractor-trailer (HDTT) reveals a possible reduction in the aerodynamic…
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Flow Analysis between Two Bluff Bodies in a Close Distance Platooning Configuration

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Technische Universiteit Delft, The Netherlands-Frank van Tilborg, Gandert Van Raemdonck, Andrea Sciacchitano, Damiano Casalino
  • Journal Article
  • 02-12-03-0015
Published 2019-07-08 by SAE International in United States
This article analyses the flow field between two 1/8-scale Generalized European Transport System (GETS) models which are placed in a two-vehicle platoon at close distances. Numerical simulations using the lattice Boltzmann method together with a wind tunnel experiment (open jet facility, OJF) were executed. Next to balance measurements, coaxial volumetric velocimetry (CVV) measurements were performed to obtain information about the flow field. Three intervehicle distances, 0.10, 0.45 and 0.91 times the vehicle length, were tested for various platoon configurations where the vehicles in the platoon varied in terms of front-edge radius and the addition of tails. At the smallest intervehicle distance, the greatest reductions in drag were found for both the leading and trailing vehicles. The flow in the gap between the two vehicles follows an S-shaped path with small variations between the configurations. For the second distance, the leading model still experiences a decrease in drag however smaller compared to the closest distance. For the trailing model either a drag increase or decrease is found depending on its front-edge radius. The addition of a…
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