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SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles
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Two-Way Coupled CFD Approach for Predicting Gear Temperature of Oil Jet Lubricated Transmissions

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Eaton-Paul Mason, Carlos Wink
Eaton Technologies Pvt Ltd-Shrikrishna Deshpande, Himanshu Joshi, Jaiganesh Madhavan
  • Journal Article
  • 02-11-03-0013
Published 2018-07-24 by SAE International in United States
This article focuses on the development of a two-way coupled methodology to predict gear temperature of oil jet lubricated transmissions using commercial software for computational fluid dynamics simulation. The proposed methodology applies an overset mesh technique to model the gear interlocking motion, multiphase of air-oil mixture, and heat transfer. Two gear pairs were used to develop and validate the methodology, an overdrive helical gear pair of a commercial vehicle transmission and a standard spur gear pair. Different oil jet lubrication methods were investigated using the proposed methodology, such as oil jet directed at the into-mesh position and at the out-of-mesh position. This investigation showed that out of mesh lubrication direction shows better cooling performance which is in well agreement with previous studies of literature. Gear temperature was measured on the spur gears under several operating conditions by a set of thermocouples placed near the tooth contacting surface and 180 degree apart. A good correlation of predictions and measurement results were obtained for all cases within 12 °C of maximum deviation. The proposed two-way coupled CFD…
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3D-CFD-Study of Aerodynamic Losses in Compressor Impellers

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Institute of Internal Combustion Engines-Fangming Zhang, Roland Baar
  • Journal Article
  • 02-11-03-0015
Published 2018-07-05 by SAE International in United States
Due to the increasing requirements for efficiency, the wide range of characteristics and the improved possibilities of modern development and production processes, compressors in turbochargers have become more individualized in order to adapt to the requirements of internal combustion engines. An understanding of the working mechanisms as well as an understanding of the way that losses occur in the flow allows a reduced development effort during the optimization process. This article presents three-dimensional (3D) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) investigations of the loss mechanisms and quantitative calculations of individual losses. The 3D-CFD method used in this article will reduce the drawbacks of one-dimensional calculation as far as possible. For example, the twist of the blades is taken into account and the “discrete” method is used for loss calculation instead of the “average” method. The results show that at the same blade speed, the clearance loss reaches its maximum with a mass flow of 0.07 kg/s. Secondary losses are highest at low mass flows and reduce as the mass flow increases. However, at high mass flows the…
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Vibration Response Properties in Frame Hanging Catalyst Muffler

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Tokyo Roki Co., Ltd.-Gyoko Oh
  • Journal Article
  • 02-11-03-0016
Published 2018-07-24 by SAE International in United States
Dynamic stresses exist in parts of a catalyst muffler caused by the vibration of a moving vehicle, and it is important to clarify and predict the vibration response properties for preventing fatigue failures. Assuming a vibration isolating installation in the vehicle frame, the vibration transmissibility and local dynamic stress of the catalyst muffler were examined through a vibration machine. Based on the measured data and by systematically taking vibration theories into consideration, a new prediction method of the vibration modes and parameters was proposed that takes account of vibration isolating and damping. A lumped vibration model with the six-element and one mass point was set up, and the vibration response parameters were analyzed accurately from equations of motion. In the vibration test, resonance peaks from the hanging bracket, rubber bush, and muffler parts were confirmed in three excitation drives, and local stress peaks were coordinate with them as well. The first resonance peak caused by the rubber bush had relatively low frequency, but the transmissibility was low by damping. The vibration magnitude from other parts…
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Aging Effects of Catalytic Converters in Diesel Exhaust Gas Systems and Their Influence on Real Driving NOx Emissions for Urban Buses

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

MCI Management Center Innsbruck-Lukas Moeltner, Verena Schallhart
MS Consulting-Michael Hohensinner
  • Journal Article
  • 02-11-03-0014
Published 2018-06-18 by SAE International in United States
The selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitrogen oxides seems to be the most promising technique to meet prospective emission regulations of diesel-driven commercial vehicles. In the case of developing cost-effective catalytic converters with comparably high activity, selectivity, and resistance against aging, ion-exchanged zeolites play a major role. This study presents, firstly, a brief literature review and subsequently a discussion of an extensive conversion analysis of exemplary Cu/ and Fe/zeolites, as well as a homogeneous admixture of both. The aging stages of SCR catalysts deserve particular attention in this study. In addition, the aging condition of the diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) was analyzed, which influences the nitrogen dioxide (NO2) formation, because the NO2/nitrogen oxides (NOx) ratio upstream from the SCR converter could be identified as a key factor for low temperature NOx conversion. Furthermore, it could be proved that a surplus of NO2 has the potential to suppress the overall efficiency in NOx conversion. In the final step of this investigation, the data gained during the conversion analysis were used as input parameters for a numerical…
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