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Development of Noise Propensity Index (NPI) for Robust Brake Friction

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Hyundai Motor Company-Jae Seol Cho, JongYun Jeong, Hyoung Woo Kim, Hwa Sun Lee, Yang Woo Park, Junghwan Lim, Yoonjae Kim
Korea University-Jinwoo Kim, Byung Soo Joo, Ho Jang
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-2529
Published 2017-09-17 by SAE International in United States
A semi-empirical index to evaluate the noise propensity of brake friction materials is introduced. The noise propensity index (NPI) is based on the ratio of surface and matrix stiffness of the friction material, fraction of high-pressure contact plateaus on the sliding surface, and standard deviation of the surface stiffness of the friction material that affect the amplitude and frequency of the stick-slip oscillation. The correlation between noise occurrence and NPI was examined using various brake linings for commercial vehicles. The results obtained from reduced-scale noise dynamometer and vehicle tests indicated that NPI is well correlated with noise propensity. The analysis of the stick-slip profiles also indicated that the surface property affects the amplitude of friction oscillation, while the mechanical property of the friction material influences the propagation of friction oscillation after the onset of vibration. An additional case study for noise reduction was carried out using commercial brake friction materials before and after the modification of NPI. The results of the case study based on in-vehicle noise tests indicate that a robust friction material can…
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Numerical Simulation Research on Pressure during Door Closure of Commercial Vehicle

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

ASCL, Jilin University-Xingjun Hu, Jiexun Cao
FAW Jiefang Qingdao Automobile Co. Ltd.-Sheng Li, Cunfu Chen
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-9182
Published 2017-06-28 by SAE International in United States
The magnitude of door closing force is important in vehicle NVH characters, and in most case, it is not fully studied by computer aided engineering (CAE) in an early developing stage. The research took a heavy-duty truck as the study object and used Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) method with dynamic mesh to analyze the flow field of the cabin during door closing process. The change trend of pressure with time was obtained, and the influence of different factors was studied. The experiments were conducted to verify the results. Results show that the velocity of closing door and the size of relief holes have a significant influence on cabin interior pressure, and greater velocity leads to larger the pressure in cabin. The initial angle of the door affects interior pressure less comparing with the velocity of closing door. The interior pressure could be reduced effectively with the method of decreasing the velocity of closing door and increasing the size of relief holes.
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Advanced Heat Transfer and Underhood Airflow Investigation with Focus on Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) of Snowmobiles

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

BRP Finland Oy-Eetu Hurtig, Esa Väisänen, Joonas Mähönen
Graz University of Technology-Johannes Wurm, Christoph Hochenauer
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-9180
Published 2017-06-28 by SAE International in United States
The presented paper focuses on the computation of heat transfer related to continuously variable transmissions (CVTs). High temperatures are critical for the highly loaded rubber belts and reduce their lifetime significantly. Hence, a sufficient cooling system is inevitable. A numerical tool which is capable of predicting surface heat transfer and maximum temperatures is of high importance for concept design studies. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is a suitable method to carry out this task.In this work, a time efficient and accurate simulation strategy is developed to model the complexity of a CVT. The validity of the technique used is underlined by field measurements. Tests have been carried out on a snowmobile CVT, where component temperatures, air temperatures in the CVT vicinity and engine data have been monitored. A corresponding CAD model has been created and the boundary conditions were set according to the testing conditions. In a first step a simplified study is presented, to gain basic knowledge about the system, followed by a full underhood airflow simulation. The modelling process is presented in detail and…
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Damage Prediction for the Starter Motor of the Idling Start-Stop System Based on the Thermal Field

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Chongqing Communication Institute-Minglei Du
Chongqing University-Zhongming Xu, Nengfa Tao, Tao Liang, Xiaojun Xia
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-9181
Published 2017-06-28 by SAE International in United States
A coupled magnetic-thermal model is established to study the reason for the damage of the starter motor, which belongs to the idling start-stop system of a city bus. A finite element model of the real starter motor is built, and the internal magnetic flux density nephogram and magnetic line distribution chart of the motor are attained by simulation. Then a model in module Transient Thermal of ANSYS is established to calculate the stator and rotor loss, the winding loss and the mechanical loss. Three kinds of losses are coupled to the thermal field as heat sources in two different conditions. The thermal field and the components’ temperature distribution in the starting process are obtained, which are finally compared with the already-burned motor of the city bus in reality to predict the damage. The analysis method proposed is verified to be accurate and reliable through comparing the actual structure with the simulation results. The approach in this paper provides the basis for optimizing the idling start-stop system in the future, and its key point lies in…
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Near Automatic Translation of Autonomie-Based Power Train Architectures for Multi-Physics Simulations Using High Performance Computing

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Mississippi State Univ-Tomasz Haupt, Gregory Henley, Angela Card, Michael S. Mazzola, Matthew Doude
US Army ERDC-Christopher Goodin
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0267
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
The Powertrain Analysis and Computational Environment (PACE) is a powertrain simulation tool that provides an advanced behavioral modeling capability for the powertrain subsystems of conventional or hybrid-electric vehicles. Due to its origins in Argonne National Lab’s Autonomie, PACE benefits from the reputation of Autonomie as a validated modeling tool capable of simulating the advanced hardware and control features of modern vehicle powertrains. However, unlike Autonomie that is developed and executed in Mathwork’s MATLAB/Simulink environment, PACE is developed in C++ and is targeted for High-Performance Computing (HPC) platforms. Indeed, PACE is used as one of several actors within a comprehensive ground vehicle co-simulation system (CRES-GV MERCURY): during a single MERCURY run, thousands of concurrent PACE instances interact with other high-performance, distributed MERCURY components. A proof-of-concept implementation of PACE, as applied to a conventional powertrain architecture, was presented at the SAE2016 conference. Since then, a C++ library of components implementing the functionality of the corresponding Simulink subsystems has been developed, followed by streamlining the process of the generation of the C++ code for a particular powertrain; the…
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Simulation Modeling on Dynamic Stiffness of Leaf Spring Based on Three-link Model

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Dongfeng Commercial Vehicle Technical Center-Wei Chen, Ying Chen
Tsinghua University-Xiang Liu, Jing Zhao
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0421
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
The leaf spring has significant hysteresis characteristics due to the interleaf friction. The traditional three-link model could not simulate the hysteresis characteristics at all. According to the dynamic load test results one can find that the dynamic stiffness of leaf spring has a nonlinear relationship with the travel distance and the load frequency has a tiny influence on it. Based on the traditional three-link model, this paper proposed a simulation modeling method by introducing torsional friction on the revolute joints. The key parameters including torsional spring stiffness, friction torque preload, stiction transition velocity and max stiction deformation are optimized by combining the ADAMS and OPTIMUS. The comparison analysis between the simulation and test results of front and rear leaf springs have revealed that the maximum average errors are 4.84% and 6.41%, respectively. The proposed simulation modeling method of leaf spring lays a foundation for the high efficiency and precision modeling of vehicles on ride comfort.
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Evaluation and Prevention of Corrosion Risks for Light Weight Automotive Exhaust Components

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Faurecia Emissions Control Technologies-Muhamamd Yasir, Helmut Wieser, Daniel Knoll, Simon Burger
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0390
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
The purpose of this paper is to highlight the importance of material and design selection for future light weight exhaust systems. Material validation for new components usually requires various types of tests on different types of test coupons. There are varieties of corrosion test methods which are in practice since years now. Majority of these testing approaches are used to make relative ranking among different materials. In most of these tests a correlation between testing and field behavior is missing. There is also no test available in which both external as well as internal corrosion can be realized simultaneously. Additionally, none of these corrosion tests cover the design aspects of the components. To combat this challenge Faurecia has built and validated a corrosion test setup where complete exhaust silencer can be tested near to real conditions. A comparative study was performed between field parts and test parts to validate the test cycle. The test results are satisfactory and duplicating the real-world performance. With the help of this method an accurate material and design selection can…
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A Global Optimal Energy Management System for Hybrid Electric off-road Vehicles

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Cranfield University-Chen Lv
University of Waterloo-Hong Wang, Yanjun Huang, Amir Khajepour
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0425
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Energy management strategies greatly influence the power performance and fuel economy of series hybrid electric tracked bulldozers. In this paper, we present a procedure for the design of a power management strategy by defining a cost function, in this case, the minimization of the vehicle’s fuel consumption over a driving cycle. To explore the fuel-saving potential of a series hybrid electric tracked bulldozer, a dynamic programming (DP) algorithm is utilized to determine the optimal control actions for a series hybrid powertrain, and this can be the benchmark for the assessment of other control strategies. The results from comparing the DP strategy and the rule-based control strategy indicate that this procedure results in approximately a 7% improvement in fuel economy.
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Kinematic Analysis of Tractor-Semitrailer with Split Fifth Wheel Coupling During Low Speed Turning Maneuvers

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Indian Institute of Technology - Madras-Ajith Jogi, Sujatha Chandramohan
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-1554
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Over the years, commercial vehicles, especially tractor-semitrailer combinations have become larger and longer. With the increasing demand for their accessibility in remote locations, these vehicles face the problem of off-tracking, which is the ensuing difference in path radii between the front and rear axles of a vehicle as it maneuvers a turn. Apart from steering the rear axle of the semitrailer, one of the feasible ways of mitigating off-tracking is to shift the fifth wheel coupling rearwards. However, this is limited by the distribution of the semitrailer’s load between the two axles of the tractor; any rearward shift of the fifth wheel coupling results in the reduction of the total static load on the tractor’s front axle and hence available traction. This may in turn lead to directional instability of the vehicle. In the present work, a new model of the fifth wheel coupling is proposed which the authors call Split fifth wheel coupling (SFWC). Here, unlike the Conventional fifth wheel coupling (CFWC), the point of load transfer from the semitrailer to the tractor and…
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Lightweight Stiffening Ribs in Structural Plates

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

US Army-Venkatesh Babu
US Army TARDEC-Richard Gerth
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0268
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
The aim of this analysis was to model the effect of adding stiffening ribs in structural aluminum components by friction stir processing (FSP) Nano material into the aluminum matrix. These stiffening ribs could dampen, redirect, or otherwise alter the transmission of energy waves created from automotive, ballistic, or blast shocks to improve noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH) and structural integrity (reduced joint stress) response. Since the ribs are not created by geometry changes they can be space efficient and deflect blast / ballistic energy better than geometry ribbing, resulting in a lighter weight solution. The blast and ballistic performance of different FSP rib patterns in AL 5182 and AL 7075 were simulated and compared to the performance of an equivalent weight of RHA plate FSP helps to increase localized strength and stiffness of the base metal, while achieving light weighting of the base metal.
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