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Optimization of Front Wheel Drive Engine Mounting System for Third Order Shudder Improvement

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Altair Engineering Inc.-Makarand Datar
Ford Motor Company-Kalyan Addepalli, Natalie Remisoski
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-9175
Published 2017-04-11 by SAE International in United States
Nowadays, the vehicle design is highly ruled by the increasing customer demands and expectations. In addition to ride comfort and vehicle handling, the Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH) behavior of the powertrain is also a critical factor that has a big impact on the customer experience. To evaluate the powertrain NVH characteristics, the NVH error states should be studied. A typical NVH event could be decoupled into 3 parts: source, path, and receiver. Take-off shudder, which evaluates the NVH severity level during vehicle take-off, is one of the most important NVH error states. The main sources of Front Wheel Drive (FWD) take-off shudder are the plunging Constant Velocity Joints (CVJ) on the left and right half shafts. This is because a plunging CVJ generates a third order plunging force with half shaft Revolution Per Minute (RPM), which is along the slip of the plunging CVJ. The primary path of take-off shudder is the Engine Mounting System (EMS), which isolates the vibration inputs from the vehicle body. A typical receiver of shudder is the passenger seat,…
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Accelerated Lab Test Methodology for Steering Gearbox Bracket Using Fatigue Damage and Reliability Correlation

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Anna University-Vela Murali
Ashok Leyland Ltd.-N. Obuli Karthikeyan, R. Dinesh Kumar, V. Srinivasa Chandra
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-9177
Published 2017-04-11 by SAE International in United States
In the modern automotive sector, durability and reliability are the most common terms. Customers are expecting a highly reliable product but at low cost. Any product that fails within its useful life leads to customer dissatisfaction and affects the reputation of the OEM. To eradicate this, all automotive components undergo stringent validation protocol, either in proving ground or in lab. This paper details on developing an accelerated lab test methodology for steering gearbox bracket using fatigue damage and reliability correlation by simulating field failure. Initially, potential failure causes for steering gearbox bracket were analyzed. Road load data was then acquired at proving ground and customer site to evaluate the cumulative fatigue damage on the steering gearbox bracket. To simulate the field failure, lab test facility was developed, reproducing similar boundary conditions as in vehicle. Based on the damage analysis, customized lab test sequence was developed and field failure was simulated with the existing design samples. Reliability analysis was carried out and reliable life in lab test was correlated with the field. Lab cycle target for…
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Design and Analysis of Lifting Pusher Drop Axle for Heavy Commercial Vehicle

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Ashok Leyland Ltd.-A Grinspan
M.Tech (CAD/CAM)-Jitesh Shukla
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-9176
Published 2017-04-11 by SAE International in United States
Lifting axles are auxiliary axles that provide increased load carrying capacity in heavy commercial vehicles. Lift axle gives better fuel efficiency as well as it reduces the operational costs by means of increasing the loading carrying capacity. These axles are raised when the vehicle is in unloaded condition, thus increasing the traction on remaining wheels and reducing the tire wear which in turn lower down the maintenance cost of the vehicle. Lifting height and force requires to lift the whole mechanism and are two main considerable factors to design the lifting axle mechanism. Although in India currently, the use of lift mechanism of single tire with continuous axle is more common. But in the case of pusher axle, continuous axle is unable to lift more after certain height because of the draft angle of the propeller shaft, and single tire axle which has less load carrying capacity up to 6T (Tons). Multi-axle vehicles have ‘pusher’ axle that is present in front of the drive tandem axle, which gives additional load carrying capacity for such vehicles.…
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Data Driven Calibration Approach

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Ford Motor Company-Nahid Pervez, Ace Koua Kue, Adarsh Appukuttan, John Bogema, Michael Van Nieuwstadt
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0607
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Designing a control system that can robustly detect faulted emission control devices under all environmental and driving conditions is a challenging task for OEMs. In order to gain confidence in the control strategy and the values of tunable parameters, the test vehicles need to be subjected to their limits during the development process. Complexity of modern powertrain systems along with the On-Board Diagnostic (OBD) monitors with multidimensional thresholds make it difficult to anticipate all the possible scenarios. Finding optimal solutions to these problems using traditional calibration processes can be time and resource intensive. A possible solution is to take a data driven calibration approach. In this method, a large amount of data is collected by collaboration of different groups working on the same powertrain. Later, the data is mined to find the optimum values of tunable parameters for the respective vehicle functions. This large scale data (terabytes) gives the engineers more samples to analyze and confidence in the calibration. A robust data analysis platform capable of handling large scale data and flexible enough to cater…
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Vibro-Impact Analysis of Manual Transmission Gear Rattle and Its Sound Quality Evaluation

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Tongji University-Guangqiang Wu, Huwei Wu
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0403
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Experimental schemes, frequency characteristics, subjective and objective sound quality evaluation and sound quality prediction model establishment of a certain mass-production SUV (Sport Utility Vehicle, SUV) manual transmission gear rattle phenomenon were analyzed in this paper. Firstly, vehicle experiments, including experiment conditions, vibration acceleration sensor and microphone arrangements and especial considerations in experiments, were described in detail. Secondly, through time-frequency analysis, broadband characteristics of manual transmission gear rattle noise were identified and vibro-impact of gear rattle occurs in the frequency range of 450~4000Hz on the vehicle idle condition and the creeping condition. Thirdly, based on bandwidth filtering processing of gear rattle noise, subjective assessment experiments by a paired comparison method were carried out. Evaluation results passed triangular loop verification and Spearman correlation coefficient examination, and then subjective annoyance results of each noise sample were calculated. Further, objective evaluation results, based on two physical acoustics parameters and six psychological acoustics parameters, were obtained respectively. Finally, comprehensive evaluation of subjective and objective results was analyzed by the MLR (Multiple Linear Regression, MLR) method. It’s concluded that AI (Articulation…
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Obstacle Avoidance Strategy and Implementation for Unmanned Ground Vehicle Using LIDAR

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

AVL Powertrain Engineering Inc-Yang Wang, Ankit Goila, Rahul Shetty, Mahdi Heydari, Ambarish Desai, Hanlong Yang
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0118
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Regarding safety, obstacle avoidance has been considered as one of the most important features among ADAS systems for ground vehicles. However, the implementation of obstacle avoidance functions to commercial vehicles are still under progress. In this paper, we demonstrate a complete process of obstacle avoidance strategy for unmanned ground vehicle and implement the strategy on the self-developed Arduino based RC Car. In this process, the sensor LIDAR was used to detect the obstacles on the fore-path. Based on the measured LIDAR data, an optimized path is automatically generated with accommodation of current car position, obstacle locations, car operation capability and global environmental restrictions. The path planning is updated in real time while new or changing obstacles being detected. This algorithm is validated by the simulation results with the RC car. The comparison will be discussed at the end of this paper. The successful implementation of the proposed strategy demonstrates the feasibility of this obstacle avoidance methodology, which can be applied to commercial autonomous vehicle.
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An Application of a Model-Prediction-Based Reference Modification Algorithm to Engine Air Path Control

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Toyota Motor Corporation-Hayato Shirai, Hayato Nakada, Akio Matsunaga, Hiroyuki Tominaga
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0586
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
In real-world automotive control, there are many constraints to be considered. In order to explicitly treat the constraints, we introduce a model-prediction-based algorithm called a reference governor (RG). The RG generates modified references so that predicted future variables in a closed-loop system satisfy their constraints. One merit of introducing the RG is that effort required in control development and calibration would be reduced. In the preceding research work by Nakada et al., only a single reference case was considered. However, it is difficult to extend the previous work to more complicated systems with multiple references such as the air path control of a diesel engine due to interference between the boosting and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) systems. Moreover, in the air path control, multiple constraints need to be considered to ensure hardware limits. Hence, it is quite beneficial to cultivate RG methodologies to deal with multiple references and constraints. In this paper, we develop the RG algorithm based on gradient descent method to allow for multiple references and constraints. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the…
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Effects of Entrapped Gas within the Fluid on the Stiffness and Damping Characteristics of a Hydro-Pneumatic Suspension Strut

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Concordia University Montreal-Yuming Yin, Subhash Rakheja
IRSST-P-E. Boileau
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0411
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
This study is aimed at characterizing the nonlinear stiffness and damping properties of a simple and low cost design of a hydro-pneumatic suspension (HPS) that permits entrapment of gas into the hydraulic fluid. The mixing of gas into the oil yields highly complex variations in the bulk modulus, density and viscosity of the hydraulic fluid, and the effective gas pressure, which are generally neglected. The pseudo-static and dynamic properties of the HPS strut were investigated experimentally and analytically. Laboratory tests were conducted to measure responses in terms of total force and fluid pressures within each chamber under harmonic excitations and nearly steady temperature. The measured data revealed gradual entrapment of gas in the hydraulic fluid until the mean pressure saturated at about 84% of the initial pressure, suggesting considerably reduced effective bulk modulus and density of the hydraulic fluid. An analytical model of the HPS strut was formulated considering polytropic change in the gas state and increased fluid compressibility due to entrapped air. Both the measured data and the model results showed progressively hardening stiffness…
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Considerations of Vibration Fatigue for Automotive Components

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

FCA US LLC-Liang Wang, Robert Burger, Alan Aloe
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0380
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
As an automobile is driven, its components and structures consistently experience the random excitations from road inputs and periodic vibration from engine firing. This could cause durability issues if the component structure isn’t fully validated. Vibration fatigue is a field of study regarding the assessment and improvement of a component’s or system’s robustness to vibration inputs.This paper introduces aspects of vibration fatigue to help designers, release engineers, and test engineers better understand the requirements, testing methodologies available, and strategies for improving vibration fatigue performance for the design and validation testing of their products. Vibration characteristics such as typical vibration levels and frequency content for varied areas in the automotive environment are introduced. Methodologies available for conducting actual vibration testing are introduced with listed advantages and disadvantages. Finally, aspects that could improve a component’s or system’s vibration fatigue durability are recommended.
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Powerpack Design in S-HEV: Quantifying the Influence of Duty Cycles on Design and Fuel Economy

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Clemson-ICAR-Andrej Ivanco
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0272
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Military vehicles experience a wide range of duty cycles depending on the place and purpose of their deployment. Vehicle fuel consumption directly depends on those use cases, which are ranging from patrolling during peace keeping operations to direct engagements in hostiles areas. Vehicle design should accommodate this wide range of operation modes to maximize the vehicle practicality during their service life. This paper aims to quantify the sensitivity of the powerpack design for a notional 15-ton series hybrid electric vehicle for two highly dynamic military drive cycles. The optimal design for a powerpack (engine coupled with a generator) will be separately determined for each of the use cases through a previously developed optimization routine that use the Genetic Algorithm. For each iteration of the Genetic Algorithm a design benchmarking was incorporated by using Dynamic Programming. Subsequently a comparison between the cycle-optimized designs will be performed to quantify the fuel consumption penalty of operating the vehicle with a cycle-tailored design on a different cycle. The results can help to understand the sensitivity of the vehicle fuel…
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