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SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles
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Globalization and Terminology in Diagnostics and Service

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Navistar, Inc.-Marna T. Rentería
Volvo Parts Corporation-Anders Andersson
  • Journal Article
  • 2008-01-2707
Published 2008-10-07 by SAE International in United States
Provision of service information in various languages has been a must in the automotive industry. However, in the commercial vehicle industry, it is unclear how manufacturers are managing this daunting task. California Air Resource Board (CARB) 2010 regulations are awakening the commercial vehicle service information managers who are responsible for providing this information according to SAE J2403 terminology. Now is the time to mimic the automotive industry by collaborating on terminology, and in the meantime, begin discussion on how we all manage multiple languages.
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Streamlining the Integration of Electrical and Mechanical Design Data and Processes between OEMS and Suppliers

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Mentor Graphics-John P. Wilson
  • Journal Article
  • 2008-01-2628
Published 2008-10-07 by SAE International in United States
For some years, OEMs and suppliers have been using CAD tools to improve efficiencies in both mechanical design and electrical design. Modern CAD tools have evolved from simple drafting and documentation towards specialized tools for each task – mechanical layout, mechanical styling, electrical design, manufacturing design, and so on. There is often a significant overlap between the data-scope of each of these tools, but, without good integration facilities, engineers must re-key the same information in each of the different tools: this is both time-consuming and error-prone.This paper examines, and illustrates, the issues, technologies and processes that are available to improve the integration between mechanical and electrical CAD tools, and between OEMs and their suppliers.
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Ambulance Vehicle Crashworthiness and Passive Safety Design: A Comparative Evaluation

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

EMS Safety Foundation-Nadine Levick
University of NSW-Raphael Grzebieta
  • Journal Article
  • 2008-01-2695
Published 2008-10-07 by SAE International in United States
Ambulances are largely exempt from crashworthiness and occupant protection passive safety design standards in the USA, and have a poor road safety record. This comparative evaluation of USA ‘concept safety’ ambulances and a standard Australian ambulance is based on basic principles of crashworthiness and available crash test data. There are features of USA ambulance design that are not within known principles and technical aspects of crashworthiness and safety design, and include some predictable serious occupant protection hazards. The USA ambulance industry should recognize and apply crashworthiness and occupant protection principles to reduce current system failures for this fleet of essential service vehicles.
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Multi-objective Optimization Tool for Noise Reduction in Axial Piston Machines

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Purdue University-Ganesh Kumar Seeniraj, Monika Ivantysynova
  • Journal Article
  • 2008-01-2723
Published 2008-10-07 by SAE International in United States
Noise generation in axial piston machines can be attributed to two main sources; fluid borne and structure borne. Any attempt towards noise reduction in axial piston machines should focus on simultaneous reduction of these two sources. A multi-parameter multi-objective optimization approach to design valve plates to reduce both sources of noise for pumps which operate in a wide range of operating conditions has been detailed in a previous work (Seeniraj and Ivantysynova, 2008). The focus of this paper is to explain the background and to demonstrate the functionality and usefulness of the methodology for pump design.
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Crankshaft and Bearing Analysis Process for a Light Duty Automotive Engine

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Cummins Inc-Ilya L. Piraner, Matthew P. Meek
  • Journal Article
  • 2008-01-2674
Published 2008-10-07 by SAE International in United States
Design of a light duty diesel for an automotive market presents contradictory challenges related to passenger car requirements for a compact, low weight design versus the diesel's base engine that must withstand cylinder pressures that are much greater than that seen on gasoline. This was a particular challenge for Cummins because of two reasons. First, design practices developed for Cummins' traditional heavy duty and industrial markets could lead to over-design, particularly for those items that have wear based life limits like bearings. Secondly, in the pursuit of new engine business it is necessary to be able to quickly yet accurately generate conceptual engine space claims for a variety of vehicle and engine specifications. When applying traditional guidelines for crank and bearing sizing, the resulting base engine size appeared an unsolvable problem relative to size and weight requirements. To overcome these difficulties a number of new processes have been established, two of which are described in this paper.
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NOx Performance of an LNT+SCR System Designed to Meet EPA 2010 Emissions: Results of Engine Dynamometer Emission Tests

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Eaton Corporation-Erik C. Dykes
  • Journal Article
  • 2008-01-2642
Published 2008-10-07 by SAE International in United States
The paper covers the NOx performance evaluation of an LNT + SCR system designed to meet the 2010 on-highway heavy-duty (HD) US EPA emission standards. The system combines a fuel reformer catalyst (REF), lean NOx trap (LNT), diesel particulate filter (DPF), and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) in series, to reduce engine-out NOx and PM. System NOx reduction performance was verified in an engine dynamometer test cell, using a 2007 7.6L medium-duty engine. System NOx performance was characterized using fresh LNT and SCR along with hydrothermal aged LNT and fresh SCR. Test results show levels consistent with EPA 2010 limits under various test conditions. Catalysts performance was characterized at eight steady engine-operating conditions (A100, B50, B75, A75, B100, C100, C75, C50, across a 13-mode Supplemental Emission Test (SET), and an on-highway Heavy Duty Federal Test Procedure (HD-FTP). System level NOx conversion ranged from 84 to 99%, SCR contributing between 8 - 25% of total system NOx conversion. System fuel consumption ranged from 2.3 to 4.7%.
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On Driver Eye Closure Recognition for Commercial Vehicles

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Delphi E&S-Riad I. Hammoud, Gerald Witt, Robert Dufour, Andrew Wilhelm, Timothy Newman
  • Journal Article
  • 2008-01-2691
Published 2008-10-07 by SAE International in United States
This paper addresses the issue of driving while drowsy and proposes a passive eye monitoring-based driver eye closure recognition system. It reviews the core algorithmic building blocks of this system along with in-depth analysis of operational test field characteristics. The system operates equally in both day and night-time. It automatically finds the drivers eyes in the images, tracks the eye location in a wide range of head and eye motion, and estimates in real-time the eye state as either open or closed eye, and further infers to driver drowsiness state. This paper reports as well the experimental results on a diverse and challenging set of subjects and environmental driving conditions.
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Low-Cost Autonomous Vehicles for Urban Environments

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Control-Point Corp.-Bernard P. Moss
Delphi E&S-Mahesh K. Chengalva, Richard Bletsis
  • Journal Article
  • 2008-01-2717
Published 2008-10-07 by SAE International in United States
Despite the rapid progress in the development of autonomous vehicles, as seen in the DARPA Urban Challenge 2007, there has been very little emphasis on minimizing costs. Some teams spent upward of $10 million in developmental expenses. The cost factor is very important as it is the primary driver leading to the commercialization of autonomous technology. With this fact in mind, an alternative approach has been emphasized here, wherein a fully autonomous vehicle designed for urban environments has been developed and tested for under $20,000 in hardware costs. Moreover, this vehicle passed several rounds of elimination to participate in the semi-finals of the DARPA Urban Challenge at Victorville, California, in November 2007.
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Development of a Lube Filter with Controlled Additive Release for Modern Heavy Duty Diesel Engines Utilizing EGR

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Afton Chemical-Charles Passut
Honeywell-Weston Gerwin
  • Journal Article
  • 2008-01-2644
Published 2008-10-07 by SAE International in United States
As on-highway heavy-duty diesel engine designs have evolved to meet tighter emission regulations, the crankcase environment for heavy-duty engine lubricants has become more challenging. The introduction of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) has allowed for significant reductions of exhaust emissions, but has led to increased oxidation and acid build-up in the lubricant. Engine lubricant quality is important to help ensure engine durability, engine performance, and reduce maintenance downtime. Increased acidity and oxidation accelerate the rate at which the lubricant quality is degraded and hence shorten its' useful life. This paper explores the use of a lube filter with a controlled additive release to maintain lubricant quality.
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5.9 GHz DSRC Standards Overview and Status

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Kapsch TrafficCom Inc.-Justin McNew, Janine McGraw
  • Journal Article
  • 2008-01-2651
Published 2008-10-07 by SAE International in United States
Over the past several years the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) Standards Association has developed standards for the 5.9 GHz Dedicated Short Range Communications protocols, also known as Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments. These standards consist of IEEE 1609 as well as an amendment to the IEEE 802.11 standard or 802.11p. The 1609 standards were published for Trial Use and these as well as the 802.11p draft have been implemented in a variety of test beds to provide lessons learned and feedback into the standards working groups. Based on ongoing testing, the protocols display a strong capability to address the requirements of crash avoidance and transportation mobility applications. The corresponding test results provide information necessary to update the standards after the first trial phase as industry moves toward commercial implementations. In this paper we explore the history and status of the standards as well as anticipated revisions of IEEE 1609 and publication of IEEE 802.11p.
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