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SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains
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SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

National Taiwan University, Taiwan-Ming-Yen Chen, Kang Yang, Yun-Zhong Sun, Jung-Ho Cheng
  • Journal Article
  • 08-08-01-0004.1
Published 2019-11-01 by SAE International in United States
Open Access

An Energy Management Strategy for Through-the-Road Type Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

National Taiwan University, Taiwan-Ming-Yen Chen, Kang Yang, Yun-Zhong Sun, Jung-Ho Cheng
  • Journal Article
  • 08-08-01-0004
Published 2019-09-19 by SAE International in United States
This article proposes an energy management strategy for a through-the-road (TTR) plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) to achieve efficient fuel consumption performance. The target hybrid powertrain includes an electric traction motor, an integrated starter/generator (ISG), and a gasoline internal combustion engine (ICE) in the front axle and another electric motor in the rear axle. The energy management strategy is organized into six functional modules. The power mode is determined by the driver’s pedal demand, vehicle states, and the characteristics of the related power units to increase the overall system efficiency. The energy management strategy and the vehicle models are established in the Matlab/Simulink by using dSPACE Automotive Simulation Models (ASM) software. The proposed strategy is examined in terms of three test scenarios in the Model-in-the-Loop (MiL) simulations. The vehicle operates in the EV mode in the range from 40% to 70% battery state of charge (SOC) to improve the fuel consumption. The ICE is ignited to charge the battery if SOC is under 40%. In the acceleration simulation, the ICE involves in the power output…
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Comparative Study of Different Air Supply Systems for Automotive Fuel Cell Applications

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Continental Automotive GmbH, Germany-Florian Uhrig, Mario Schinnerl, Peter Haluska
OTH, Germany-Peter Kurzweil
  • Journal Article
  • 08-08-01-0002
Published 2019-05-10 by SAE International in United States
The dynamic and efficiency of automotive fuel cell drives is significantly influenced by air supply system. Different air compression architectures use electric compressor (EC), electric turbocharger (ETC), or a serial booster (SB) consisting of turbocharger and electric compressor. These three variants of air compression systems were modeled using a map approach and added to a 0D fuel cell air supply model. The characteristic maps of the turbomachinery were measured on the test bench under fuel cell conditions. Subsequently, the calculated isentropic efficiencies were corrected with respect to heat transfer phenomena occurring during the measurement. Moreover, a scaling method for the maps of the turbomachinery is explained. The initial simulation of the air compression systems with equal diameters for the turbomachinery showed no difference in the mechanical power demand. Therefore, the particle swarm algorithm (PSA) was applied to optimize the turbomachinery maps of EC, ETC, and SB with the scaling method. The PSA reduces the mechanical power demand of EC by 17%, of ETC by 18%, and of SB by 27%. This leads to the lowest…
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Control Strategy for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Based on Online Driving Pattern Classification

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

University of Alabama, USA-Zhengyu Yao, Hwan-Sik Yoon
  • Journal Article
  • 08-08-02-0006
Published 2019-12-04 by SAE International in United States
Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) are gaining popularity these days mainly due to their high fuel economy. While conventional HEV controllers can be classified into rule-based control and optimization-based control, most of the production vehicles employ rule-based control due to their reliability. However, once the rule is optimized for a given driving pattern, it is not necessarily optimal for other driving patterns. In order to further improve fuel economy for HEVs, this article investigates the feasibility of optimizing control algorithm for different driving patterns so that the vehicle maintains a high level of optimality regardless of the driving patterns. For this purpose, a two-level supervisory control algorithm is developed where the top-level algorithm classifies the current driving pattern to select optimal control parameters, and the lower level algorithm controls the vehicle power flow using the selected control parameters in a similar way to conventional supervisory controllers. To study the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, a HEV model with a rule-based control algorithm is modified such that the control parameters are optimized for different driving patterns, and…
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Identification and Review of the Research Gaps Preventing a Realization of Optimal Energy Management Strategies in Vehicles

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Western Michigan University, USA University of California Irvine, USA University of California Davis, USA Colorado State University, USA-Zachary D. Asher, Amol A. Patil, Van T. Wifvat, Andrew A. Frank, Scott Samuelsen, Thomas H. Bradley
  • Journal Article
  • 08-08-02-0009
Published 2019-11-14 by SAE International in United States
The development of new vehicle control strategies that achieve improved fuel economy (FE) is an active subject of research due to the economic, environmental, and societal impact of transportation. These control strategies can be classified as either driving behavior modifications (e.g., Eco-Driving, Eco-Routing) or powertrain operation modifications (e.g., an Optimal Energy Management Strategy, or Optimal EMS). This literature review is focused on the Optimal EMS and seeks to develop a novel understanding of the current research gaps and to provide a novel comprehensive overview of initial studies addressing the identified research gaps. Research gaps are derived by utilizing a systems-level viewpoint of an Optimal EMS realization in vehicles and studying the subsystem integration readiness levels (IRLs). Identified research gaps include (1) incorporation of both perception and planning subsystems, (2) studying the effects of mispredictions on the planning subsystem, and (3) physical demonstrations of the planning subsystem. Studies which have begun to fill each research gap are identified, and recommendations are presented for future research to bridge each research gap. It is the authors’ contention that…
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System Performance Comparison of Direct Torque Control Strategies Based on Flux Linkage and DC-Link Voltage for EV Drivetrains

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, India-Kashyap Kumar Prabhakar, C. Upendra Reddy, Amit Kumar Singh, Praveen Kumar
  • Journal Article
  • 08-08-02-0007
Published 2019-11-14 by SAE International in United States
Numerous works have been carried out with perspectives to improve the energy efficiency of electric vehicle (EV) drivetrains; much of the attention has been on the design of highly efficient electric motors, power converters, and energy storage system. Besides the abovementioned factors, selection of the drivetrain configuration and control strategy also influence the efficiency and performance of EV drivetrain. The drivetrain efficiency and performance indices, such as torque ripple and total harmonic distortion (THD) of voltage and current, are sensitive to the direct current (dc)-link voltage and flux linkage values for a drivetrain control strategy. Therefore, in this work, the efficiency and the performance of two popular direct torque controlled induction motor (IM) drives are compared on the basis of adjustable dc-link voltage and flux linkage values for desired operating condition. Both these techniques are implemented on a lab scale test bed. Extensive experiments are performed to determine and compare the drivetrain efficiency maps. Further, dynamic and steady-state (SS) control performance in terms of speed, torque, and flux linkage is examined. Other performance indices, such…
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Hybrid Transmission for Optimizing Input Machine Operation

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

University of Split, Croatia-Damir Jelaska, Milan Perkušić, Srdjan Podrug, Vjekoslav Tvrdić 
  • Journal Article
  • 08-08-02-0008
Published 2019-11-14 by SAE International in United States
The hybrid transmission with a single energy source is presented in this article, which has the ability to, under certain constraints, transfer the energy from the input shaft with arbitrary variable speed onto the output shaft with the variable speed required for an output machine or propelling member operation - without a control system. The transmission is in a way similar to a power-split transmission for hybrid electric vehicles sans the battery and a power-split control logic. Development of a dedicated control system enables the optimal operation of the input machine. As an example, the transmission is designed for a passenger automobile. For the chosen automobile type, the power train is modeled in MATLAB/Simulink. In drive simulations during the single New European Driving Cycle (NEDC), the powertrain efficiency and fuel consumption are obtained and compared with two comparable vehicles: the conventional one and the advanced HEV. The competitiveness of the proposed transmission is proven.
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Innovative Dedicated Hybrid Transmission Concepts in the Next Generation of Hybrid Powertrains

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Technische Universität Carolo-Wilhelmina zu Braunschweig, Germany-Haijun Chen, Lin Li, Andreas Lange, Ferit Küçükay
  • Journal Article
  • 08-08-01-0005
Published 2019-09-20 by SAE International in United States
Due to the advantages of hybrid vehicles in comparison with pure electric vehicles, Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV)/Plug-in HEV (PHEV) no undoubtedly becomes the reasonable and practical solution in the development of vehicle electrification at the moment. Meanwhile, Dedicated Hybrid Transmission (DHT), as the especially designed hybrid transmission for HEV/PHEV, represents the development direction of hybrid vehicles. But in the market, the well-known DHT concepts are all protected by patents by large Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs). How to break the patents and more importantly develop the innovative DHT concepts in the next generation is of vital importance in the development of HEV/PHEV. In this article, firstly, the features and comparisons of different well-known DHT concepts are discussed and analyzed. The mechanical and electrical complexity are introduced to essentially analyze the advantage and disadvantage of different kinds of DHT concepts. Based on the analysis, the possibilities of different DHT concepts in the next generation are further analyzed and demonstrated. The innovative DHT are derived from the analysis. In comparison with DHT in the market, the innovative DHT…
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Open Access

Modeling and Optimal Design of All-Wheel-Drive Hybrid Light Trucks

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Ford Motor Company, USA-Xiaowu Zhang
Robert Bosch LLC, USA-Nikhil Ravi
  • Journal Article
  • 08-08-01-0003
Published 2019-06-06 by SAE International in United States
Fuel economy and performance are both important in the design of hybrid pickup trucks. All-wheel drive is essential to ensure superior performance compared to two-wheel-drive designs. In this article, as a comprehensive extension work to the article published in ASME Dynamic Systems and Control Conference [1] on all-wheel-drive (AWD) hybrid truck, we investigate the modeling, design, and control problem of AWD hybrid vehicles and develop a methodology to identify optimal designs. This methodology 1) formulates an automated modeling process, 2) searches exhaustively through all possible AWD designs, and 3) employs a near-optimal energy management strategy, to obtain a family of designs with superior performance and fuel economy. A design case study for a hybrid Ford F-150 is conducted, to showcase this design process.
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Selection of Reference Flux Linkage for Direct Torque Control Based Induction Motor Drive in Electric Vehicle Applications

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, India-Amit Kumar Singh, Upendra Reddy, Kashyap Kumar Prabhakar, Praveen Kumar
  • Journal Article
  • 08-08-01-0001
Published 2019-04-08 by SAE International in United States
The surge in economic activities, in the developing nations, has resulted in rapid expansion of urban centres. This expansion of cities has caused a rapid increase in vehicular traffic, which in turn has caused deterioration of air quality. To overcome the problem of unprecedented air pollution, the governments worldwide have framed policies for faster adoption of electric vehicles. One of the major challenges faced is the development of low- cost drive for these vehicles and keeping the imports to a minimum. As a result of this, the trend is to move away from the permanent magnet-based motor technology and to use induction motor-based drivetrain. For the induction motors to be successful in electric vehicle drivetrain application, it is important to have a robust speed control algorithm. This work aims at adapting a direct torque control technique for induction motor’s speed control. The work addresses the impact of reference flux linkage on the operation of an induction motor for direct torque control over a wide range of operation. A Finite Element Analysis based induction motor model…
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