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SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains
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Discussion on Charging Control Strategy for Power Battery at Low Temperatures

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Dongfeng Motor Corporation-Liu Xiaojun, Yu Jinpeng, Yang Xia, Wu Daoming
The Kanto Science and Technology-Jie Zhu
  • Journal Article
  • 08-07-01-0004
Published 2017-10-08 by SAE International in United States
In the case of electric vehicles, due to the charging current limitation of lithium battery at low temperatures (below -20°C), it has been proposed to heat the battery pack up to a suitable temperature range before charging through a liquid-heating plate with PTC. However, at a low state of charge (SOC), there is a question which one could take the place of battery pack to supply power for PTC when heating. So that off-board charger (OFC) has been considered to supply power for PTC in this article. In order to control the current charging into the battery pack as less as possible at low temperatures, three control schemes of battery management system (BMS) are proposed and compared. Scheme 1: BMS controls the value of charging current request close to the working current of PTC. Scheme 2: BMS controls the value of charging voltage request to reach a state of relative balance. Scheme 3: BMS disconnects the pack from the charger and keeps the connection between PTC and charger. The functions of the three schemes above…
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A Bibliographical Review of Electrical Vehicles (xEVs) Standards

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Aligarh Muslim University-Mohammad Saad Alam, Aqueel Ahmad, Yasser Rafat
Hyundai-Kia America Technical Center-Rakan C Chabaan
  • Journal Article
  • 08-07-01-0005
Published 2018-04-18 by SAE International in United States
This work puts presents an all-inclusive state of the art bibliographical review of all categories of electrified transportation (xEVs) standards, issued by the most important standardization organizations. Firstly, the current status for the standards by major organizations is presented followed by the graphical representation of the number of standards issued. The review then takes into consideration the interpretation of the xEVs standards developed by all the major standardization organizations across the globe. The standards are differentiated categorically to deliver a coherent view of the current status followed by the explanation of the core of these standards. The ISO, IEC, SAE, IEEE, UL, ESO, NTCAS, JARI, JIS and ARAI electrified transportation vehicles xEV Standards from USA, Europe, Japan, China and India were evaluated. A total approximated of 283 standards in the area have been issued. A tabular form containing the code numbers and standards titles by the major standard organizations in a total of seven categories is presented. Categories identified were: Standards on xEV Terminology Vocabulary, Standards on xEV Charging, Standards on xEV Battery and Rechargeable…
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On WTW and TTW Specific Energy Consumption and CO2 Emissions of Conventional, Series Hybrid and Fully Electric Buses

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

University of L’Aquila-Carlo Villante, Michele Anatone, Angelo De Vita
  • Journal Article
  • 08-07-01-0001
Published 2018-04-17 by SAE International in United States
Making use of a specifically designed dynamical vehicle model, the authors here presented the results of an activity for the evaluation of energy consumption and CO2 emissions of buses for urban applications. Both conventional and innovative (series hybrid, and fully electric) vehicles were considered to obtain interesting comparative conclusions. The derived tool was used to simulate the dynamical behaviour of these vehicles on a number of kinematic profiles measured during real buses operation in different contexts, varying from really congested city centre routes to fast-lane operated services. It was so possible to evaluate the energetic performances of those buses on a Tank-to-Wheel (TTW) basis. Results were also extended to a Well-To-Wheel (WTW) basis making use of numerical and experimental results about Well-to-Tank (WTT) energy consumption by the JRC (Joint Research Centre) of the European Union, to take into account the use of different energy vectors (gasoil vs electricity). Sensitiveness of energy consumption with the main influencing parameters was evaluated and, in coherence with the CorInAIR program (defined within the UE and already applied to conventional…
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Design, Analysis, and Optimization of a Multi-Speed Powertrain for Class-7 Electric Trucks

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

McGill University-Alexei Morozov, Kieran Humphries, Ting Zou, Tanvir Rahman, Jorge Angeles
  • Journal Article
  • 08-07-01-0002
Published 2018-04-17 by SAE International in United States
The development, analysis, and optimization of battery electric class-7 heavy-duty trucks equipped with multi-speed transmissions are discussed in this article. The designs of five new traction motors-fractional-slot, concentrated winding machines-are proposed for use in heavy-duty electric trucks. The procedure for gear-ratio range selection is outlined and ranges of gear ratios for three-to six-speed transmission powertrains are calculated for each of the proposed electric traction motors. The simulation and gear-ratio optimization tasks for class-7 battery electric trucks are formulated. The energy consumption of the e-truck with the twenty possible powertrain combinations is minimized over the four driving cycles and the most efficient powertrain layouts that meet the performance criteria are recommended.
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Real-Time Optimal Control of Power Management in a Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle: A Comparative Analysis

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Michigan Technological University-Arya Yazdani, Mehran Bidarvatan
  • Journal Article
  • 08-07-01-0003
Published 2018-03-08 by SAE International in United States
Power split in Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicles (FCHEVs) has been controlled using different strategies ranging from rule-based to optimal control. Dynamic Programming (DP) and Model Predictive Control (MPC) are two common optimal control strategies used in optimization of the power split in FCHEVs with a trade-off between global optimality of the solution and online implementation of the controller. This is due to the fact that DP that offers the global optimal solution requires the pre-known knowledge of the driving condition for the whole drive cycle, which makes the real-time implementation of the strategy more challenging. In this article, both control strategies are developed and tested on a FC/battery vehicle model, and the results are compared in terms of total energy consumption. In addition, the effects of the MPC prediction horizon length on the controller performance are studied. Results show that by using the DP strategy, up to 12% less total energy consumption is achieved compared to MPC for a charge sustaining mode in the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) drive cycle. However, increasing the…
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