Terms:
SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains
AND
5
AND
2
The SAE MOBILUS platform will continue to be accessible and populated with high quality technical content during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. x
Show Only

Collections

File Formats

Content Types

Dates

Sectors

Topics

Authors

Publishers

Affiliations

Events

   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Investigation of Combustion Optimization Control Strategy for Stable Operation of Linear Internal Combustion Engine-Linear Generator Integrated System

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Tongji University-Pengfei Zang, Zhe Wang, Chenle Sun
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-9144
Published 2016-06-17 by SAE International in United States
The linear internal combustion engine-linear generator integrated system (LICELGIS) is an innovative structure as a range-extender for the hybrid vehicles, which contains two opposed free piston engines and one linear generator between them. The LICELGIS is a promising power package due to its high power density and multi-fuel flexibility.In the combustion process of linear engines, the top dead center (TDC) position is not stable in different cycles, which significantly affects system operations. Otherwise, pistons move away from the TDC with high-speed because of the tremendous explosive force, which incurs the short residence time of pistons around the TDC and rapid decrease of in-cylinder temperature, pressure and the combustion efficiency. In order to address this problem, a scientific simulation model which includes dynamic and thermodynamic models, is established and a combustion optimization control strategy is proposed. The control strategy is based on the variable electromagnetic resistance force of the system. The electromagnetic resistance force is predictive and adjustable based on the velocity of midpoint and piston displacement.The simulation results indicate that under this control strategy, the…
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Evaluation and Design of Electric/Electronic-Architectures of the Electric Vehicle

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Jilin University, ASCL-Yang Zhao, Weiwen Deng, Jian Wu
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-9143
Published 2016-06-17 by SAE International in United States
The evaluation of electric vehicle electric/electronic-architectures (e/e-architectures) is the main topic of this paper. The electric vehicle is chosen as an example system, as it reflects the typical challenges of modern vehicle e/e-architecture development. The development of modern automotive technology also presents another important trend - vehicle electrification. New electric and electronic devices are developed and required in the automotive industry and control commands are exchanged by electric and electronic ones. The energy storage systems (ESS) properly reflect the above two aspects. The energy storage device also takes care of the peak loads, the high load dynamics, and it utilizes the braking energy in order to increase the efficiency. In this work a Li-ion battery and an ultracapacitor both are considered as energy storage devices. The ESS is designed in an iterative process under a driving cycle where the power flow through the vehicle is under the influence of a certain energy management strategy, which steadily and rapidly divides the power between the units.In this paper, a distributed e/e-architecture with a vehicle control unit is…
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Genetic Algorithm Based Gear Shift Optimization for Electric Vehicles

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Eaton Corp.-Vinod Saini, Sanchit Singh, Shivaram NV
Indian Institute of Technology Delhi-Himanshu Jain
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-9141
Published 2016-06-17 by SAE International in United States
In this paper, an optimization method is proposed to improve the efficiency of a transmission equipped electric vehicle (EV) by optimizing gear shift strategy. The idea behind using a transmission for EV is to downsize the motor size and decrease overall energy consumption. The efficiency of an electric motor varies with its operating region (speed/torque) and this plays a crucial role in deciding overall energy consumption of EVs. A lot of work has been done to optimize gear shift strategy of internal combustion engines (ICE) based automatic transmission (AT), and automatic-manual transmissions (AMT), but for EVs this is still a new area. In case of EVs, we have an advantage of regeneration which makes it different from the ICE based vehicles. In order to maximize the efficiency, a heuristic search based algorithm - Genetic Algorithm (GA) is used. The problem is formulated as a multi-objective optimization problem (MOOP) where overall efficiency and acceleration performance are optimized. A mathematical formulation is provided to calculate the maximum possible efficiency for a given drive cycle. Non-dominated Sorting Genetic…
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Control Allocation for Multi-Axle Hub Motor Driven Land Vehicles

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Clemson University-Qian Wang, Beshah Ayalew
US Army, TARDEC-Amandeep Singh
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-1670
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
This paper outlines a real-time hierarchical control allocation algorithm for multi-axle land vehicles with independent hub motor wheel drives. At the top level, the driver’s input such as pedal position or steering wheel position are interpreted into desired global state responses based on a reference model. Then, a locally linearized rigid body model is used to design a linear quadratic regulator that generates the desired global control efforts, i.e., the total tire forces and moments required track the desired state responses. At the lower level, an optimal control allocation algorithm coordinates the motor torques in such a manner that the forces generated at tire-road contacts produce the desired global control efforts under some physical constraints of the actuation and the tire/wheel dynamics. The performance of the proposed control system design is verified via simulation analysis of a 3-axle heavy vehicle with independent hub-motor drives.
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Powerpack Optimal Design Methodology with Embedded Configuration Benchmarking

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Clemson-ICAR-Andrej Ivanco, Zoran S. Filipi
University of Michigan-Kan Zhou, Heath Hofmann
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-0313
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
Design of military vehicle needs to meet often conflicting requirements such as high mobility, excellent fuel efficiency and survivability, with acceptable cost. In order to reduce the development cost, time and associated risk, as many of the design questions as possible need to be addressed with advanced simulation tools. This paper describes a methodology to design a fuel efficient powerpack unit for a series hybrid electric military vehicle, with emphasis on the e-machine design. The proposed methodology builds on previously published Finite element based analysis to capture basic design features of the generator with three variables, and couples it with a model reduction technique to rapidly re-design the generator with desired fidelity. The generator is mated to an off the shelf engine to form a powerpack, which is subsequently evaluated over a representative military drive cycles. An iterative procedure is developed, in which the optimization of the supervisory controller is embedded into the design optimization framework. Therefore, for every combination of design parameters the Dynamic Programming routine develops a benchmark control for minimum fuel consumption.…
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Electric Motor Design of General Motors’ Chevrolet Bolt Electric Vehicle

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

General Motors Co.-Faizul Momen, Khwaja M. Rahman, Yochan Son, Peter Savagian
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-1228
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
A permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) motor is used to design the propulsion system of GM’s Chevrolet Bolt battery electric vehicle (BEV). Magnets are buried inside the rotor in two layer ‘V’ arrangement. The Chevrolet Bolt BEV electric machine rotor design optimizes the magnet placement between the adjacent poles asymmetrically to lower torque ripple and radial force. Similar to Chevrolet Spark BEV electric motor, a pair of small slots are stamped in each rotor pole near the rotor outer surface to lower torque ripple and radial force. Rotor design optimizes the placement of these slots at different locations in adjacent poles providing further reduction in torque ripple and radial force. As a result of all these design features, the Chevrolet Bolt BEV electric motor is able to meet the GM stringent noise and vibration requirements without implementing rotor skew, which (rotor skew) lowers motor performance and adds complexity to the rotor manufacturing and hence is undesirable.A bar-wound stator construction, similar to Chevrolet Spark battery electric vehicle, is implemented in Chevrolet Bolt BEV. Bar-wound construction, which…
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Efficiency Improvement of Boost Converter for Fuel Cell Bus by Silicon Carbide Diodes

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Toyota Motor Corporation-Toshikazu Sugiura, Atsushi Tanida, Kazutaka Tamura
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-1234
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
The adoption of silicon carbide (SiC) power semiconductors is regarded as a promising means of improving the fuel efficiency of all types of electrically powered vehicles, including plug-in, electric, fuel cell, and hybrid vehicles (PHVs, EVs, FCVs, and HVs). For this reason, adoption in a wide variety of vehicles is currently being studied, including in the fuel cell (FC) boost converter of an FC bus. The FC boost converter controls the output voltage of the FC up to 650 V. In this research, SiC Schottky barrier diodes (SiC-SBDs) were adopted in the upper arm of an FC boost converter. Since the forward voltage (Vf) of SiC-SBDs is smaller than conventional Si-PiN diodes (Si-PiNDs), the conduction loss of SiC-SBDs is correspondingly smaller. Recovery loss can also be reduced by at least 90% compared to Si-PiNDs since the recovery current of SiC-SBDs is substantially smaller. Lowering the recovery current of the upper arm has the effect of reducing the superimposed current when the silicon insulated gate bipolar transistors (Si-IGBTs) in the lower arm turn on. As a…
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

High Efficiency Electromagnetic Torque Converter for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Aisin Seiki Co Ltd-Tomoyuki Toyama
Toyota Central R&D Labs Inc-Takao Watanabe, Eiji Tsuchiya, Masaki Ebina, Yasumitsu Osada
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-1162
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
A new concept of an electromagnetic torque converter for hybrid electric vehicles is proposed. The electromagnetic torque converter, which is an electric system comprised of a set of double rotors and a stator, works as a high-efficiency transmission in the driving conditions of low gear ratio including a vehicle moving-off and as a starting device for an internal combustion engine. Moreover, it can be used for an electric vehicle driving as well as for a regenerative braking. In this concept, a high-efficiency drivetrain system for hybrid electric vehicles is constructed by replacing a fluid-type torque converter with the electromagnetic torque converter in the automatic transmission of a conventional vehicle. In this paper, we present the newly developed electromagnetic torque converter with a compact structure that enables mounting on a vehicle, and we evaluate its transmission efficiency by experiment. Furthermore, using the experimental results and finite element analysis of the electric machine, we clarify the system loss of the electromagnetic torque converter.
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Optimal Supervisory Control of the Series HEV with Consideration of Temperature Effects on Battery Fading and Cooling Loss

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Clemson-ICAR-Xueyu Zhang, Zoran Filipi
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-1239
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
This paper develops a methodology to optimize the supervisory controller for a heavy-duty series hybrid electric vehicle, with consideration of battery aging and cooling loss. Electrochemistrybased battery aging model is integrated into vehicle model. The side reaction, reductive electrolyte decomposition, is modeled to determine battery aging rate, and the thermal effect on this reaction rate is considered by Arrhenius Law. The resulting capacity and power fading is included in the system-level study. Sensitivity analysis shows that battery aging could cause fuel economy loss by 5.9%, and increasing temperature could improve fuel economy at any given state-of-health, while accelerating battery aging. Stochastic dynamic programming algorithm is applied to a modeled system to handle the tradeoff between two objectives: maximizing fuel economy and minimizing battery aging. The strategy developed by the stochastic dynamic programming improves fuel economy by 8%, and reduces the lithium ion loss by 17% after 9e3 cycles.
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Impacts of Real-World Driving and Driver Aggressiveness on Fuel Consumption of 48V Mild Hybrid Vehicle

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Clemson-ICAR-Zifan Liu, Andrej Ivanco, Zoran S. Filipi
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-1166
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
The 48V mild hybrid technology is emerging as a very attractive option for high-volume vehicle electrification. Compared to high-voltage hybrids, the 48V system has a potential of achieving competitive fuel economy with significantly lower incremental costs. While previous studies of 48V mild hybrid systems discussed vehicle configuration, power management strategy and electric machine design, quantitative assessment of fuel economy under real-world conditions remains an open topic. Objectives of this paper are to propose a methodology for categorizing real-world cycles based on driver aggressiveness, and to subsequently analyze the impact of driving patterns on fuel saving potentials with a 48V mild hybrid system. Instead of using the certification test cycles to evaluate the fuel economy, real-world cycles are extracted from 2001-2003 Southern California Household Travel Survey. Subsequently, a consistent energy management strategy is implemented into the vehicle simulation and the real-world fuel consumption reductions are quantified for different levels of driver aggressiveness.
Annotation ability available