Terms:
SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains
AND
5
Show Only

Collections

File Formats

Content Types

Dates

Sectors

Topics

Authors

Publishers

Affiliations

Events

   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Investigation of Combustion Optimization Control Strategy for Stable Operation of Linear Internal Combustion Engine-Linear Generator Integrated System

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Tongji University-Pengfei Zang, Zhe Wang, Chenle Sun
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-9144
Published 2016-06-17 by SAE International in United States
The linear internal combustion engine-linear generator integrated system (LICELGIS) is an innovative structure as a range-extender for the hybrid vehicles, which contains two opposed free piston engines and one linear generator between them. The LICELGIS is a promising power package due to its high power density and multi-fuel flexibility.In the combustion process of linear engines, the top dead center (TDC) position is not stable in different cycles, which significantly affects system operations. Otherwise, pistons move away from the TDC with high-speed because of the tremendous explosive force, which incurs the short residence time of pistons around the TDC and rapid decrease of in-cylinder temperature, pressure and the combustion efficiency. In order to address this problem, a scientific simulation model which includes dynamic and thermodynamic models, is established and a combustion optimization control strategy is proposed. The control strategy is based on the variable electromagnetic resistance force of the system. The electromagnetic resistance force is predictive and adjustable based on the velocity of midpoint and piston displacement.The simulation results indicate that under this control strategy, the…
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Evaluation and Design of Electric/Electronic-Architectures of the Electric Vehicle

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Jilin University, ASCL-Yang Zhao, Weiwen Deng, Jian Wu
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-9143
Published 2016-06-17 by SAE International in United States
The evaluation of electric vehicle electric/electronic-architectures (e/e-architectures) is the main topic of this paper. The electric vehicle is chosen as an example system, as it reflects the typical challenges of modern vehicle e/e-architecture development. The development of modern automotive technology also presents another important trend - vehicle electrification. New electric and electronic devices are developed and required in the automotive industry and control commands are exchanged by electric and electronic ones. The energy storage systems (ESS) properly reflect the above two aspects. The energy storage device also takes care of the peak loads, the high load dynamics, and it utilizes the braking energy in order to increase the efficiency. In this work a Li-ion battery and an ultracapacitor both are considered as energy storage devices. The ESS is designed in an iterative process under a driving cycle where the power flow through the vehicle is under the influence of a certain energy management strategy, which steadily and rapidly divides the power between the units.In this paper, a distributed e/e-architecture with a vehicle control unit is…
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Genetic Algorithm Based Gear Shift Optimization for Electric Vehicles

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Eaton Corp.-Vinod Saini, Sanchit Singh, Shivaram NV
Indian Institute of Technology Delhi-Himanshu Jain
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-9141
Published 2016-06-17 by SAE International in United States
In this paper, an optimization method is proposed to improve the efficiency of a transmission equipped electric vehicle (EV) by optimizing gear shift strategy. The idea behind using a transmission for EV is to downsize the motor size and decrease overall energy consumption. The efficiency of an electric motor varies with its operating region (speed/torque) and this plays a crucial role in deciding overall energy consumption of EVs. A lot of work has been done to optimize gear shift strategy of internal combustion engines (ICE) based automatic transmission (AT), and automatic-manual transmissions (AMT), but for EVs this is still a new area. In case of EVs, we have an advantage of regeneration which makes it different from the ICE based vehicles. In order to maximize the efficiency, a heuristic search based algorithm - Genetic Algorithm (GA) is used. The problem is formulated as a multi-objective optimization problem (MOOP) where overall efficiency and acceleration performance are optimized. A mathematical formulation is provided to calculate the maximum possible efficiency for a given drive cycle. Non-dominated Sorting Genetic…
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

A Linear Parameter Varying Combined with Divide-and-Conquer Approach to Thermal System Modeling of Battery Modules

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

ANSYS Inc.-Saeed Asgari
General Motors Co-Shailendra Kaushik
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-9148
Published 2016-05-01 by SAE International in United States
A linear parameter varying (LPV) reduced order model (ROM) is used to approximate the volume-averaged temperature of battery cells in one of the modules of the battery pack with varying mass flow rate of cooling fluid using uniform heat source as inputs. The ROM runs orders of magnitude faster than the original CFD model. To reduce the time it takes to generate training data, used in building LPV ROM, a divide-and-conquer approach is introduced. This is done by dividing the battery module into a series of mid-cell and end-cell units. A mid-cell unit is composed of a cooling channel sandwiched in between two half -cells. A half-cell has half as much heat capacity as a full-cell. An end-cell unit is composed of a cooling channel sandwiched in between full-cell and a half-cell. A mass flow rate distribution look-up-table is generated from a set of steady-state simulations obtained by running the full CFD model at different inlet manifold mass flow rate samples. This look-up-table is used to build a series of mid-cell and end-cell LPV ROMs…
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

An Experimental Survey of Li-Ion Battery Charging Methods

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Fiat Chrysler Automobiles-Rami Abousleiman
Oakland University-Abdullah AL-Refai, Osamah Rawashdeh
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-9145
Published 2016-05-01 by SAE International in United States
Lithium-Ion batteries are the standard portable power solution to many consumers and industrial applications. These batteries are commonly used in laptop computers, heavy duty devices, unmanned vehicles, electric and hybrid vehicles, cell phones, and many other applications. Charging these batteries is a delicate process because it depends on numerous factors such as temperature, cell capacity, and, most importantly, the power and energy limits of the battery cells. Charging capacity, charging time and battery pack temperature variations are highly dependent on the charging method used. These three factors can be of special importance in applications with strict charging time requirements or with limited thermal management capabilities. In this paper, three common charging methods are experimentally studied and analyzed. Constant-current constant-voltage, the time pulsed charging method, and the multistage constant current charging methods were considered. Charge capacity, charge time and temperature variations vary based on the selected charging method. These variations are compared and contrasted. The presented results help engineers to better choose a more suitable charging method based on the design requirements and the system constraints…
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Prediction of Lithium-ion Battery's Remaining Useful Life Based on Relevance Vector Machine

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Wuhan University of Technology-Zhiyun Zhang, Miaohua Huang, Yupu Chen, Shuanglong Zhu
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-9147
Published 2016-05-01 by SAE International in United States
In the field of Electric Vehicle (EV), what the driver is most concerned with is that whether the value of the battery's capacity is less than the failure threshold because of the degradation. And the failure threshold means instability of the battery, which is of great danger for drives and passengers. So the capacity is an important indicator to monitor the state of health (SOH) of the battery. In laboratory environment, standard performance tests can be carried out to collect a number of related data, which are available for regression prediction in practical application, such as the on-board battery pack.Firstly, we make use of the NASA battery data set to form the observed data sequence for regression prediction. And a practical method is proposed to determine the minimum embedding dimension and get the recurrence formula, with which a capacity model is built. Afterwards, an optimized Relevance Vector Machine (RVM) algorithm is utilized to improve the prediction performance as well as the operating efficiency and get a tradeoff between training time and computational complexity. Finally, given…
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Vibration Torque Interception using Multi-Functional Electromagnetic Coupling in a HEV Drive Line

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Toyota Central R&D Labs Inc-Takao Watanabe
Toyota Motor Corporation-Tadashi Fujiyoshi, Akira Murakami
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-1181
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
In the present paper, we introduce a drivetrain system using an electromagnetic coupling for hybrid electric vehicles, and propose a new control concept of vibration torque interception. The electromagnetic coupling is an electric machine that is composed of a pair of rotors, and electromagnetic torque acts mutually between the rotors. In the drivetrain system, the electromagnetic coupling works as a torque transmission device with a rotational-speed-converting function. We demonstrate that, by using this control, the electromagnetic coupling also works as a damping device that intercepts the vibration torque of the internal combustion engine, while transmitting the smooth torque to its drive line. Using a model of a two-inertia resonance system, a control system is designed such that a transfer function representing input-to-output torque is shaped in the frequency domain. Experimental results obtained using an electromagnetic coupling demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed concept.
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Control Allocation for Multi-Axle Hub Motor Driven Land Vehicles

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Clemson University-Qian Wang, Beshah Ayalew
US Army, TARDEC-Amandeep Singh
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-1670
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
This paper outlines a real-time hierarchical control allocation algorithm for multi-axle land vehicles with independent hub motor wheel drives. At the top level, the driver’s input such as pedal position or steering wheel position are interpreted into desired global state responses based on a reference model. Then, a locally linearized rigid body model is used to design a linear quadratic regulator that generates the desired global control efforts, i.e., the total tire forces and moments required track the desired state responses. At the lower level, an optimal control allocation algorithm coordinates the motor torques in such a manner that the forces generated at tire-road contacts produce the desired global control efforts under some physical constraints of the actuation and the tire/wheel dynamics. The performance of the proposed control system design is verified via simulation analysis of a 3-axle heavy vehicle with independent hub-motor drives.
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Powerpack Optimal Design Methodology with Embedded Configuration Benchmarking

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Clemson-ICAR-Andrej Ivanco, Zoran S. Filipi
University of Michigan-Kan Zhou, Heath Hofmann
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-0313
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
Design of military vehicle needs to meet often conflicting requirements such as high mobility, excellent fuel efficiency and survivability, with acceptable cost. In order to reduce the development cost, time and associated risk, as many of the design questions as possible need to be addressed with advanced simulation tools. This paper describes a methodology to design a fuel efficient powerpack unit for a series hybrid electric military vehicle, with emphasis on the e-machine design. The proposed methodology builds on previously published Finite element based analysis to capture basic design features of the generator with three variables, and couples it with a model reduction technique to rapidly re-design the generator with desired fidelity. The generator is mated to an off the shelf engine to form a powerpack, which is subsequently evaluated over a representative military drive cycles. An iterative procedure is developed, in which the optimization of the supervisory controller is embedded into the design optimization framework. Therefore, for every combination of design parameters the Dynamic Programming routine develops a benchmark control for minimum fuel consumption.…
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

CO2 Emissions Reduction via 48V Active Engine-Off Coasting

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

HELLA Electronics Corp-Alan Brown
HELLA KGaA Hueck & Co.-Marc Nalbach, André Korner
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-1152
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
Global CO2 reduction by 2021, according to some projections, will be comprised of multiple vehicle technologies with 7% represented by hybrid and electric vehicles (2% in 2014) [1]. Other low cost hybrid methods are necessary in order to achieve widespread CO2 reduction. One such method is engine-off coasting and regenerative braking (or recuperation) using a conventional internal combustion engine (ICE).This paper will show that a 48V power system, compared to a 12V system with energy storage module for vehicle segments B, D and E during WLTP and NEDC, is much more efficient at reducing CO2. Passive engine-off coasting using 12V energy storage shows a CO2 benefit for practical real world driving, but, during NEDC, multiple sources of friction slow the vehicle down to the extent that the maximum benefit is not achieved. By adding active engine-off coasting at the 48V level the CO2 emissions for NEDC are improved by decreasing the rate of deceleration with a 48V electric motor for propulsion. Also important, which will be explored in more detail, are the necessary power dimensions…
Annotation ability available