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SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains
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Simulation of the Noise Radiated by an Automotive Electric Motor: Influence of the Motor Defects

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Vibratec-Jean-Baptiste Dupont, Racha Aydoun, Pascal Bouvet
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-2070
Published 2014-06-30 by SAE International in United States
The noise radiated by an electrical motor is very different from the one generated by an internal combustion engine. It is characterized by the emergence of high frequency pure tones that can be annoying and badly perceived by future drivers, even if the overall noise level is lower than that of a combustion engine.A simulation methodology has been proposed, consisting in a multi-physical approach to simulate the dynamic forces and noise radiated by electric motors. The principle is first to calculate the excitation due to electromagnetic phenomena (Maxwell forces) using an electromagnetic finite element solver. This excitation is then projected onto the structure mesh of the stator in order to calculate the dynamic response. Finally, the radiated sound power is calculated with the aid of a standard acoustic finite element method. The calculation methodology assumes a weak coupling between the different physical levels. It has been validated by comparison with the experiment.This simulation only considers the excitation generated by a perfect machine. This paper focuses on the possibility to include in this simulation the defects…
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Analyzing the Energy Consumption Variation during Chassis Dynamometer Testing of Conventional, Hybrid Electric, and Battery Electric Vehicles

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Argonne National Laboratory-Henning Lohse-Busch, Eric Rask
Colorado State Univ-Jake Bucher, Thomas Bradley
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-1805
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
Production vehicles are commonly characterized and compared using fuel consumption (FC) and electric energy consumption (EC) metrics. Chassis dynamometer testing is a tool used to establish these metrics, and to benchmark the effectiveness of a vehicle's powertrain under numerous testing conditions and environments. Whether the vehicle is undergoing EPA Five-Cycle Fuel Economy (FE), component lifecycle, thermal, or benchmark testing, it is important to identify the vehicle and testing based variations of energy consumption results from these tests to establish the accuracy of the test's results. Traditionally, the uncertainty in vehicle test results is communicated using the variation. With the increasing complexity of vehicle powertrain technology and operation, a fixed energy consumption variation may no longer be a correct assumption. This paper will present the observed energy consumption variation as measured from the variation in the battery net energy change (NEC), and the variation observed during thermal dynamometer testing. Results will be provided for a variety of vehicle architectures tested on common drive cycles.
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Compact, Safe and Efficient Wireless and Inductive Charging for Plug-In Hybrids and Electric Vehicles

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Hella Electronics Corp.-Alan Brown
Hella KGaA Hueck & Co.-Andre Körner, Juris Tlatlik
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-1892
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
Conventional charging systems for electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles currently use cables to connect to the grid. This methodology creates several disadvantages, including tampering, risk, depreciation and non-value added user efforts. Loose or faulty cables may also create a safety issue. Wireless charging for electric vehicles delivers both a simple, reliable and safe charging process. The system enhances consumer adoption and promotes the integration of electric vehicles into the automotive market. Increased access to the grid enables a higher level of flexibility for storage management, increasing battery longevity.The power class of 3.7kW or less is an optimal choice for global standardization and implementation, due to the readily available power installations for potential customers throughout the world. One of the key features for wireless battery chargers are the inexpensive system costs, reduced content and light weight, easing vehicle integration.This paper demonstrates a wireless charging design with minimal component content. It includes a car pickup coil with 300 mm side length and low volume and mass 1.5 dm3 power interface electronics. After an overview of its hardware…
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A Study on How to Utilize Hilly Road Information in Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy of FCHEVs

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Hyundai Motor Co.-Seongpil Ryu
KAIST-Jihun Han, Youngjin Park, Dongsuk Kum
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-1827
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents an adaptation method of equivalent factor in equivalent consumption minimization strategy (ECMS) of fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle (FCHEV) using hilly road information. Instantaneous optimization approach such as ECMS is one of real-time controllers. Furthermore, it is widely accepted that ECMS achieves near-optimum results with the selection of the appropriate equivalent factor. However, a lack of hilly road information no longer guarantees near-optimum results as well as charge-sustaining of ECMS under hilly road conditions. In this paper, first, an optimal control problem is formulated to derive ECMS analytical solution based on simplified models. Then, we proposed updating method of equivalent factor based on sensitivity analysis. The proposed method tries to mimic the globally optimal equivalent factor trajectory extracted from dynamic programming solutions. Finally, simulations for various hilly roads are carried out for validation of the proposed adaptation method of equivalent factor. Results show that the proposed method generates similar equivalent factor trajectory with globally optimal equivalent factor trajectory in the specific drive condition. In conclusion, if future vehicle velocity can be assumed…
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Control Variables Optimization and Feedback Control Strategy Design for the Blended Operating Regime of an Extended Range Electric Vehicle

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Univ of Zagreb-Branimir Škugor, Mihael Cipek, Joško Deur
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-1898
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
In an authors' previous SAE publication, an energy management control strategy has been proposed for the basic, charge-depleting/charge-sustaining (CD/CS) regime of an Extended Range Electric Vehicle (EREV). The strategy is based on combining a rule-based controller, including a state-of-charge regulator, with an equivalent consumption minimization strategy. This paper presents an extension of the control strategy, which can provide a favorable vehicle behavior in the more general blended (BLND) operating regime, as well. Dynamic programming-based control variables optimization is first conducted to gain an insight into the vehicle optimal behavior in the BLND regime, facilitate the feedback control strategy development/extension, and serve as a benchmark for the control strategy verification. Next, a parameter optimization method is applied to find optimal values of critical engine on/off thresholds. Finally, the control strategy is verified against the optimal benchmark for several repetitive certified driving cycles, and the results are compared with those obtained for the basic CD/CS regime.
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Optimization of the Series-HEV Control with Consideration of the Impact of Battery Cooling Auxiliary Losses

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Clemson Univ-Xinran Tao, John Wagner
Clemson-ICAR-Xueyu Zhang, Andrej Ivanco, Zoran Filipi
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-1904
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
This paper investigates the impact of battery cooling ancillary losses on fuel economy, and optimal control strategy for a series hybrid electric truck with consideration of cooling losses. Battery thermal model and its refrigeration-based cooling system are integrated into vehicle model, and the parasitic power consumption from cooling auxiliaries is considered in power management problem. Two supervisory control strategies are compared. First, a rule-based control strategy is coupled with a thermal management strategy; it controls power system and cooling system separately. The second is optimal control strategy developed using Dynamic Programming; it optimizes power flow with consideration of both propulsion and cooling requirement. The result shows that battery cooling consumption could cause fuel economy loss as high as 5%. When dynamic programming coordinates control of the powertrain and the cooling system in an optimal way, the fuel consumption penalty due to cooling losses is reduced to 3.7%, and battery duty cycle becomes milder. Finally, rules are extracted from the optimal strategy, and a refined rule-based strategy is presented.
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Modeling and Simulation of a Series Hybrid CNG Vehicle

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Clemson University-Bashar Alzuwayer, Mahmoud Abdelhamid, Pierluigi Pisu, Pietro Giovenco, Paul Venhovens
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-1802
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
Predicting fuel economy during early stages of concept development or feasibility study for a new type of powertrain configuration is an important key factor that might affect the powertrain configuration decision to meet CAFE standards. In this paper an efficient model has been built in order to evaluate the fuel economy for a new type of charge sustaining series hybrid vehicle that uses a Genset assembly (small 2 cylinders CNG fueled engine coupled with a generator). A first order mathematical model for a Li-Ion polymer battery is presented based on actual charging /discharging datasheet. Since the Genset performance data is not available, normalized engine variables method is used to create powertrain performance maps. An Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy (ECMS) has been implemented to determine how much power is supplied to the electric motor from the battery and the Genset. Finally the simulator has been tested for different driving cycles and the results which include fuel consumption, battery state of charge and the vehicle drivability performance are shown.
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Response Surface Energy Modeling of an Electric Vehicle over a Reduced Composite Drive Cycle

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Argonne National Laboratory-Forrest Jehlik
Oak Ridge National Laboratory-Tim Laclair
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-0818
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
Response surface methodology (RSM) techniques were applied to develop a predictive model of electric vehicle (EV) energy consumption over the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) standardized drive cycles. The model is based on measurements from a synthetic composite drive cycle. The synthetic drive cycle is a minimized statistical composite of the standardized urban (UDDS), highway (HWFET), and US06 cycles. The composite synthetic drive cycle is 20 minutes in length thereby reducing testing time of the three standard EPA cycles by over 55%. Vehicle speed and acceleration were used as model inputs for a third order least squared regression model predicting vehicle battery power output as a function of the drive cycle.The approach reduced three cycles and 46 minutes of drive time to a single test of 20 minutes. Application of response surface modeling to the synthetic drive cycle is shown to predict energy consumption of the three EPA cycles within 2.6% of the actual measured values. Additionally, the response model may be used to predict energy consumption of any cycle within the speed/acceleration envelope of the…
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Design Optimization, Development and Manufacturing of General Motors New Battery Electric Vehicle Drive Unit (1ET35)

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

General Motors Co.-Shawn Hawkins, Alan Holmes, David Ames, Khwaja Rahman, Rodney Malone
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-1806
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
The General Motors (GM) 1ET35 drive unit is designed for an optimum combination of efficiency, performance, reliability, and cost as part of the propulsion system for the 2014 Chevrolet Spark Electric Vehicle (EV) [1]. The 1ET35 drive unit is a coaxial transaxle arrangement which includes a permanent-magnet (PM) electric motor and a low loss single-planetary transmission and is the sole source of propulsion for the battery-only electric vehicle (BEV) Spark. The 1ET35 is designed with experience gained from the first modern production BEV, the 1996 GM EV1. This paper describes the design optimization and development of the 1ET35 and its electric motor that will be made in the United States by GM. The high torque density electric motor design is based on high-energy permanent magnets that were originally developed by GM in connection with the EV1 and GM bar-wound stator technology introduced in the 2Mode Hybrid electric transmission, used in the Chevrolet Volt and in GM eAssist systems. The 1ET35 transaxle provides high power density and low system loss over a wide speed range, resulting…
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Development of a Dynamic Driveline Model for a Parallel-Series PHEV

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

The Ohio State Univ.-Amanda Hyde, Shawn Midlam-Mohler, Giorgio Rizzoni
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-1920
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
This paper describes the development and experimental validation of a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) dynamic simulator that enables development, testing, and calibration of a traction control strategy. EcoCAR 2 is a three-year competition between fifteen North American universities, sponsored by the Department of Energy and General Motors that challenges students to redesign a Chevrolet Malibu to have increased fuel economy and decreased emissions while maintaining safety, performance, and consumer acceptability. The dynamic model is developed specifically for the Ohio State University EcoCAR 2 Team vehicle with a series-parallel PHEV architecture. This architecture features, in the front of the vehicle, an ICE separated from an automated manual transmission with a clutch as well as an electric machine coupled via a belt directly to the input of the transmission. The rear powertrain features another electric machine coupled to a fixed ratio gearbox connected to the wheels. The model accounts for rotational dynamics and inertias of the torque generating components, gearboxes, and wheels. Additionally it considers the effects of stiffness and damping from the belt and shafts…
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