Terms:
SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains
AND
2
AND
2
The SAE MOBILUS platform will continue to be accessible and populated with high quality technical content during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. x
Show Only

Collections

File Formats

Content Types

Dates

Sectors

Topics

Authors

Publishers

Affiliations

Events

   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

An Application of the Particle Velocity Transfer Path Analysis to a Hybrid Electric Vehicle Motor Sound

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Hitachi America, Ltd.-Akira Inoue, Yosuke Tanabe
Hitachi, Ltd.-Masanori Watanabe
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-1999
Published 2013-05-13 by SAE International in United States
A pioneering approach to implement transfer path analysis (TPA) is proposed in this paper through applying it to an automobile. We propose to use particle velocity as a measure of TPA, in addition to using sound pressure as a conventional measure for TPA. These two quantities together will give a comprehensive and complete definition of sound. Although sound pressure is a scalar, while particle velocity is a vector, it is also proposed that the same technique of the conventional sound pressure TPA should be independently applicable to each component of particle velocity vector. This has been experimentally verified with a study on our test box system. In this paper, we apply the proposed TPA to an actual vehicle to examine its applicability, advantages and limitations. The driving motor sound of a hybrid electric vehicle is chosen as the case study. A tri-axial particle velocity sensor which also measures sound pressure at the same point is utilized in the experiment. Both structure-borne and air-borne sound paths are considered, and a miniature shaker and a volume velocity…
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Rapid Prototyping Energy Management System for a Single Shaft Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle Using Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Michigan Technological Univ.-Yang Li, Pushkar Agashe, Zicheng Ge, Bo Chen
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-0155
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
Energy management is one of the key challenges for the development of Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) due to its complex powertrain structure. Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) simulation provides an open software architecture which enables rapid prototyping HEV energy management system. This paper presents the investigation of the energy management system for a single shaft parallel hybrid electric vehicle using dSPACE eDrive HIL system. The parallel hybrid electric vehicle, energy management system, and low-level Electronic Control Unit (ECU) were modeled using dSPACE Automotive Simulation Models and dSPACE blocksets. Vehicle energy management is achieved by a vehicle-level controller called hybrid ECU, which controls vehicle operation mode and torque distribution among Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) and electric motor. The individual powertrain components such as ICE, electric motor, and transmission are controlled by low-level ECUs. To examine the performance of hybrid ECU and low-level ECUs, vehicle mode control, speed tracking, energy distribution, regenerative braking, and engine operating region were investigated in the HIL environment with a hardware electric motor controller consisting of dSPACE MicroAutoBox II and the AC Motor Control Solution.…
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Developing a Utility Factor for Battery Electric Vehicles

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Argonne National Laboratory-Michael Duoba
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-1474
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
As new advanced-technology vehicles are becoming more mainstream, analysts are studying their potential impact on petroleum use, carbon emissions, and smog emissions. Determining the potential impacts of widespread adoption requires testing and careful analysis. PHEVs possess unique operational characteristics that require evaluation in terms of actual in-use driving habits. SAE J2841, “Utility Factor Definitions for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles Using 2001 U.S. DOT National Household Travel Survey Data,” published by SAE in 2009 with a revision in 2010, is a guide to using DOT's National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) data to estimate the relative split between driving in charge-depleting (CD) mode and charge-sustaining (CS) mode for a particular PHEV with a given CD range. Without this method, direct comparisons of the merits of various vehicle designs (e.g., efficiency and battery size) cannot be made among PHEVs, or between PHEVs and other technologies.The dedicated battery electric vehicle (BEV) is now becoming a viable alternative to conventional vehicles and other advanced vehicles (like HEVs and PHEVs). However, a shortcoming persists in current comparisons between BEVs and other…
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

PHEV Cold Start Emissions Management

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Oak Ridge National Laboratory-Paul Chambon, David Smith
Univ of Tennessee-Dean Deter, David Irick
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-0358
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) operate predominantly as electric vehicles (EV) with intermittent assist from the engine. As a consequence, the engine can be subjected to multiple cold start events. These cold start events have a significant impact on tailpipe emissions due to degraded catalyst performance and starting the engine under less than ideal conditions. On current conventional vehicles, the first cold start of the engine dictates whether or not the vehicle will pass federal emissions tests. PHEV operation compounds this problem due to infrequent, multiple engine cold starts.ORNL, in collaboration with the University of Tennessee, developed an Engine-In-the-Loop (EIL) test platform to investigate cold start emissions on a 2.0l Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Ecotec engine coupled to a virtual series hybrid electric vehicle. The end-goal of this project is to demonstrate the benefits of coordinating engine and powertrain supervisory control strategies to minimize cold start emissions.First, this paper provides a summary of the results obtained by optimizing engine cold start strategies on their own within the context of a PHEV application where the…
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Model-Based Analysis of Cell Balancing of Lithium-ion Batteries for Electric Vehicles

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Johnson Controls-Zhenli Zhang
Johnson Controls Power Solutions-Brian Sisk
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-1755
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
Cell balancing is a key function of battery management system (BMS) that is implemented to maximize the battery's available capacity and service life. The increasing demand of larger and better performance pack has raised the need to investigate the various cell balancing techniques so that the energy of the battery can be fully realized. In this work we develop a phenomenological model in order to quantify the benefits of passive balancing and active balancing. The electrical response of a model pack consisting of serially connected lithium ion cells is simulated with Matlab. The effects of the variance of cell capacity, internal resistance, self-discharge rates, pack configuration and size are studied. The possible optimization rooms for implementing passive and active balancing are suggested.
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Development of Rare Earth-saving Magnet Using Localized Diffusion Method

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Honda R&D Co., Ltd.-Takayuki Higashi, Takehiro Miyoshi, Ryutaro Kato, Michihisa Kono, Masashi Inoue, Toshiyuki Nagumo, Takahiro Fukui, Kojiro Ohsaki
TDK Corporation-Makoto Iwasaki
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-1757
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
Nd₂Fe₁₄B sintered magnets are used in the drive motors of hybrid, electric and other vehicles. A magnet in which rare earth content is reduced by means of a localized diffusion method has been developed in order to reduce the volume of dysprosium.The distribution of the demagnetization fields in a motor is not uniform, so the necessary coercivity distribution for the magnets was quantified using Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE). Then material specifications of the localized dysprosium diffusion satisfied with this coercivity distribution was determined, and optimal manufacturing conditions including the position of dysprosium diffusion were set. The coercivity distribution in every position of the magnet using localized diffusion method was inspected. As a result, the magnet was satisfied with coercivity distribution demanded by CAE.Furthermore, evaluation of motor characteristics, especially the demagnetizing characteristic concerned with dysprosium reduction, showed this developed magnet to possess identical characteristics to a conventional magnet.Dysprosium resources represent a particular issue among the rare earths more generally, and the technology developed in this project is able to reduce dysprosium use in magnets by approximately 30%…
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Design of Efficient Air-Conditioning Systems for Electric Vehicles

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Universitat Politècnica de València-Bárbara Torregrosa-Jaime, Jorge Payá, Jose Corberan
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-0864
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
Among all the auxiliary components in conventional and electric vehicles, air-conditioning (AC) systems present the highest energy consumption. In fully electrical vehicles (FEVs), the heating of the cabin becomes an additional challenge as there is less waste heat available. Therefore, a careful design of the air-conditioning system and of the operation strategies is necessary to reach a reasonable FEV autonomy without compromising the thermal comfort.This paper presents a tool for the design, analysis and optimization of an efficient air-conditioning system for an electric minibus. It consists of dynamic models of each component of the system that have been developed and fully validated individually. Finally, they have been coupled together to simulate the overall vehicle performance of the vehicle in MATLAB-SIMULINK.The core of the system is a water-to-water reversible heat pump with a variable speed compressor. The internal water loop connects the heat pump to the air-coolers inside the cabin while the external water loop is integrated within the heat rejection system of the power electronics. An automatic control system regulates the speed of the compressor,…
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Real-Time Optimal Energy Management of Heavy Duty Hybrid Electric Vehicles

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Loughborough University-Dezong Zhao, Richard Stobart
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-1748
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
The performance of energy flow management strategies is essential for the success of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), which are considered amongst the most promising solutions for improving fuel economy as well as reducing exhaust emissions. The heavy duty HEVs engaged in cycles characterized by start-stop configuration has attracted widely interests, especially in off-road applications. In this paper, a fuzzy equivalent consumption minimization strategy (F-ECMS) is proposed as an intelligent real-time energy management solution for heavy duty HEVs. The online optimization problem is formulated as minimizing a cost function, in terms of weighted fuel power and electrical power. A fuzzy rule-based approach is applied on the weight tuning within the cost function, with respect to the variations of the battery state-of-charge (SOC) and elapsed time. Comparing with traditional real-time supervisory control strategies, the proposed F-ECMS is more robust to the test environments with rapid dynamics. The proposed method is validated via simulation under two transient test cycles, with the fuel economy benefits of 4.43% and 6.44%, respectively. The F-ECMS shows better performance than the telemetry ECMS…
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

High Efficiency Isolated AC-DC Converter with Gradationally Controlled Voltage Inverter for On-Board Charger

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Mitsubishi Electric Corp.-Takashi Kaneyama, Kazutoshi Awane, Mamoru Takikita, Naohisa Uehara, Ryota Kondo, Masaki Yamada
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-1756
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
A new isolated AC-DC converter for an on-board charger has been developed. It consists of an AC-DC converter with Gradationally Controlled Voltage Inverter and an isolated zero-voltage-switching DC-DC converter. To make these converters cooperate efficiently over the wide range of operating voltage conditions, we developed an optimized converter control. As a result, the new isolated AC-DC converter can operate with power conversion efficiency of over 94%.
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Consumption Optimization in Battery Electric Vehicles by Autonomous Cruise Control using Predictive Route Data and a Radar System

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

FKFS-Andreas Freuer, Hans-Christian Reuss
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-0984
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents an autonomous cruise control for battery electric vehicles. The presented approach is based on the usage of predictive route data which is extracted out of a digital map and a wide range radar system in order to capture vehicles in front.By using the predictive route data and the information of the radar system, the autonomous cruise control can control the vehicle's speed over a wide range of driving situations without any driver interaction.The main aim of the presented autonomous cruise control is to optimize the battery electric vehicle's energy consumption. The main idea is to use predictive route data in order to calculate a consumption optimal vehicle speed trajectory by means of online optimization. The benefits of the autonomous cruise control are shown by means of real test drives and measured data evaluation. Also, this paper gives an outlook how energy consumption can be further optimized by using an automatic transmission in the battery electric vehicle in combination with a predictive gear selection strategy.
Annotation ability available