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SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains
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Mobile Hybrid Power System's Elements

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Fee Leung
Department of Defence-Thomas Podlesak
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-2236
Published 2012-10-22 by SAE International in United States
The effectiveness of elements comprising a hybrid electric power generating system was studied. The wind and photovoltaic renewable resources served as integral components of the hybrid systems configuration. A HMMWV towable trailer system provided an intermediary basis for formulation of methodology needed for optimization of power generation and energy storage capacity constrained by cost, size and weight of the system. The methodology employed in this paper is scalable from kilowatts to megawatts or from man portable systems to significantly larger systems which can be housed in 40 foot ISO containers.
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Design of Direct and Indirect Liquid Cooling Systems for High- Capacity, High-Power Lithium-Ion Battery Packs

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

AVL Powertrain Engineering, Inc.-Ho Teng, Kim Yeow
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-2017
Published 2012-09-24 by SAE International in United States
Battery packs for plug-in hybrid electrical vehicle (PHEV) applications can be characterized as high-capacity and high-power packs. For PHEV battery packs, their power and electrical-energy capacities are determined by the range of the electrical-energy-driven operation and the required vehicle drive power. PHEV packs often employ high-power lithium-ion (Li-ion) pouch cells with large cell capacity in order to achieve high packing efficiency. Lithium-ion battery packs for PHEV applications generally have a 96SnP configuration, where S is for cells in series, P is for cells in parallel, and n = 1, 2 or 3. Two PHEV battery packs with 355V nominal voltage and 25-kWh nominal energy capacity are studied. The first pack is assembled with 96 70Ah high-power Li-ion pouch cells in 96S1P configuration. The second pack is assembled with 192 35Ah high-power Li-ion pouch cells in 96S2P configuration. The battery temperatures are managed with a direct liquid cooling system for the 96S1P pack and with an indirect liquid cooling system for the 96S2P pack. Procedures are discussed for the cooling system design for both direct liquid…
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Electromagnetic and Structural Coupled Simulation to Investigate NVH Behavior of an Electrical Automotive Powertrain

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Renault-Louis HUMBERT
Renault SA-P. Pellerey, S. Cristaudo
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-1523
Published 2012-06-13 by SAE International in United States
RENAULT aims to become the first full-line manufacturer putting to market zero-emission affordable electrical vehicles and is therefore developing 100 % electric powertrains. NVH problems related to electric machine design have nothing in common with those of gasoline or diesel engines: electric whistling is a high frequency harmonic phenomenon, easily detectable due to the low background noise of a non-thermal vehicle and mainly perceived as very unpleasant by the customer.Therefore we have developed a coupled numerical simulation between electromagnetic and structural models, making it possible to understand the influence of magnetic parts design on noise and vibration level. Impact of the spatial and time coherence between magnetic pressures and vibration modes of the motor will be explained. The novelty of our approach is to already take into account the whole powertrain structure radiation, including reducer and power supply boxes. Moreover we investigate the influence of the harmonic content of the supply current due to the regulation system, as well as the tangential forces effect on stator teeth.
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Study of Diesel Engine System for Hybrid Vehicles

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Toyota Motor Corp.-Tomomi Yamada, Hiroyuki Haga, Isao Matsumoto, Terutoshi Tomoda
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-2021
Published 2011-08-30 by SAE International in United States
In this study, we combined a diesel engine with the Toyota Hybrid System (THS). Utilizing the functions of the THS, reducing engine friction, lowering the compression ratio, and adopting a low pressure loop exhaust gas recirculation system (LPL-EGR) were examined to achieve both low fuel consumption and low nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions over a wide operating range. After applying this system to a test vehicle it was verified that the fuel economy greatly surpassed that of a conventional diesel engine vehicle and that NOx emissions could be reduced below the value specified in the Euro 6 regulations without DeNOx catalysts.
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Design of a Series-Parallel Plug-in Hybrid Sedan through Modeling and Simulation

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Mississippi State University-Matthew Doude, G. Marshall Molen, William Brown, Joshua Hoop, Jonathan Moore, William Dickerson
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-1768
Published 2012-09-10 by SAE International in United States
EcoCAR 2: Plugging In to the Future is a three-year design competition co-sponsored by General Motors and the Department of Energy. Mississippi State University has designed a plug-in hybrid powertrain for a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu vehicle platform. This vehicle will be capable of 57 miles all-electric range and utility-factor corrected fuel economy of greater than 80 miles per gallon gasoline equivalent (mpgge). All modifications are designed without sacrificing any of the vehicle's utility or performance. Advanced modeling, simulation, and Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) simulation capabilities are being used for rapid control prototyping and vehicle design to ensure success in the following years of the competition.
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Vehicle System Design Process for a Series-Parallel Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Virginia Tech.-P. Christopher Manning, Eli White, R. Jesse Alley, Jonathan King, Douglas J. Nelson
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-1774
Published 2012-09-10 by SAE International in United States
The Hybrid Electric Vehicle Team of Virginia Tech is one of 15 schools across the United States and Canada currently competing in EcoCAR 2: Plugging In to the Future. EcoCAR 2 is a three year competition that mimics GM's Vehicle Development Process (VDP): design, build, then refine. The first step in the design process is the selection of a powertrain architecture. In the architecture selection process, HEVT considered three options: a Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV), a Series Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV), and a Series-Parallel PHEV. The team chose the Series-Parallel PHEV based on powertrain modeling and simulation and CAD packaging analysis. Next, the team looked at a variety of component combinations and selected the one that offered the best capacity to meet competition and team goals. These components are then packaged in the CAD model to plan for component integration. As this integration was happening, a control system was also being developed. A Hybrid Vehicle Supervisory Controller (HVSC) will be added to the vehicle along with the other hybrid components. This controller handles high…
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The University of Tennessee's EcoCAR 2 Final Design Report

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Univ. of Tennessee-Ryan Howell, MItchel Routh, Travis Childress, Michael Pickelsimer, David Irick, David E. Smith
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-1771
Published 2012-09-10 by SAE International in United States
The University of Tennessee, Knoxville's (UTK) EcoCAR 2 team chose to develop a Plug-In Series-Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle that will utilize E-85 fuel. The architecture will be integrated into a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu, donated by General Motors. Throughout the first year of the competition, Tennessee implemented the EcoCAR 2 Vehicle Development Process. The team focused on the development of the supervisory controller through software simulations and Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) simulations. Simultaneously, packaging studies were performed via Computer Aided Design (CAD) for powertrain components, as well as the development of the energy storage system, and finite-element analysis (FEA) of modified vehicle components.
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Design, Development and Validation of the 2013 Penn State University E85 Series Plug-In Hybrid Vehicle

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

The Pennsylvania State University-Eduardo Barrientos, Aram Grigoryan, Gary Neal, Luke Shepley
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-1773
Published 2012-09-10 by SAE International in United States
The Pennsylvania State University Advanced Vehicle Team (PSU AVT) is one of the fifteen (15) participating teams at the EcoCAR 2 “Plugging In to the Future” challenge. The team has worked in the design, development and validation of converting a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu, into an advanced technology hybrid vehicle. The PSU AVT has determined that a Plug-In Series Electric Hybrid architecture best meets the design goals of the EcoCAR 2 competition. The vehicle will utilize a front-wheel drivetrain powered by a Magna E-drive; an Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) based on a naturally aspirated Weber MPE 750 engine, converted for use with E85, coupled to a UQM PowerPhase 75 generator; an Energy Storage System (ESS) based on six A123, 15s3p battery modules; and a Mototron ECM-5554-112-0904 controller as the Master Vehicle Controller (MVC). This paper will present the details of the proposed architecture, including the selection process and validation as well as future engineering considerations in order to implement the design into the vehicle.
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Feasibility Study of a Fossile Fueled Zero Emission Vehicle

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Energy Technology-Sebastian Stenger
Technische Universität Braunschweig-Steffi Köhler, Anna-Theresia Nasch, Reinhard Leithner, Stephan Scholl, Ulrike Krewer, Peter Eilts
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-1650
Published 2012-09-10 by SAE International in United States
This study investigates the technical feasibility of onboard carbon capture in vehicles. In fact there are two different main concepts of hybrid electric vehicles with batteries and range extenders proposed. The first concept uses an Internal Combustion Engine as range extender. Carbon dioxide is separated from the flue gas of this Internal Combustion Engine by chemical or physical absorption. In the second concept a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is used as a range extender. The CO remaining in the anode exhaust gas is not combusted as usual by mixing anode and cathode exhaust gases but shifted with water vapor, sufficient available in the anode exhaust gas flow, to H₂ and CO₂. The H₂ is separated by a membrane permeable only for H₂ and recycled by the methane flow to the SOFC stack. Carbon dioxide can then be separated by simply condensing the water vapor of the anode exhaust gas of the SOFC.Carbon dioxide can either remain onboard chemically bonded, e.g., as carbonate with the absorption media or stored in a pressure vessel after desorption…
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An Innovative 4WD PHEV Utilizing a Series-Parallel Multiple-Regime Architecture

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Univ. of Victoria-Stefan Kaban, Jason Clancy Nelford, Zuomin Dong, Jian Dong, David Killy, Daniel Prescott, Curran Crawford
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-1764
Published 2012-09-10 by SAE International in United States
The focus of this paper is the design and implementation of a series-parallel multiple-regime plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) using a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu as a platform. The University of Victoria EcoCAR team used a 3-year vehicle development process (VDP) modeled after those used by Tier 1 automotive manufacturers, and maintained by the rules of EcoCAR 2: Plugging into the Future.Intensive research was conducted to determine the ideal architecture selection based on overall greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, criteria air contaminant (CAC) emissions, fuel economy, petroleum use, and vehicle performance. As a result, a series-parallel design was pursued, using a high power rear traction motor and large BAS electric machine tied to an E85 compatible 4-cylinder internal combustion engine (ICE). This architecture platform provides for multiple regimes of operation including electric only operation provided by the 14.8 kWh lithium ion battery. The architecture is very flexible in operability, allowing for use of the vehicle beyond direct competition goals to further UVic research activities on hybrid controls.Vehicle control strategy development has relied heavily on hardware-in-loop (HIL) simulation.…
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