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SAE International Journal of Aerospace
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An Asymmetric Wrenching System with High Torque Transfer Capability for Aerospace Pins

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Alcoa Fastening Systems & Rings-Rodrigo Pinheiro, Robert Gurrola, Sead Dzebo
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-2081
Published 2016-09-27 by SAE International in United States
The installation of common threaded aerospace fasteners by the application of a torque to a nut or collar is made possible by an internal wrenching element or recess feature adapted to the threaded end of a pin, which accepts a mating anti-rotation key designed to partially balance the applied torque. In applications such as the mechanical joining of composite structures accomplished by wet clearance fit installations of permanent fasteners, high nut or collar seating torques not adequately opposed by frictional resistance at the contact surfaces of the fastener and joint members effectively shift a greater proportion of the torque reaction requirement onto the recess and mating anti-rotation key which in turn can experience high torsional stresses exceeding their design capability and result in frequent service failures. In particular, the industry standard hexagonal recess and key have been shown to be highly susceptible to such severe conditions with failure rates as high as 20% in field applications. A superior asymmetric recess design was developed for use in aerospace pins to enhance the reaction torque capability of…
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Aircraft Wing Build Philosophy Change through System Pre-Equipping of Major Components

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Airbus UK-Kevin Forster
Cranfield University-David Judt, Helen Lockett, Craig Lawson, Philip Webb
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-2120
Published 2016-09-27 by SAE International in United States
In the civil aircraft industry there is a continuous drive to increase the aircraft production rate, particularly for single aisle aircraft where there is a large backlog of orders. One of the bottlenecks is the wing assembly process which is largely manual due to the complexity of the task and the limited accessibility. The presented work describes a general wing build approach for both structure and systems equipping operations. A modified build philosophy is then proposed, concerned with large component pre-equipping, such as skins, spars or ribs. The approach benefits from an offloading of the systems equipping phase and allowing for higher flexibility to organize the pre-equipping stations as separate entities from the overall production line. Its application is presented in the context of an industrial project focused on selecting feasible system candidates for a fixed wing design, based on assembly consideration risks for tooling, interference and access. Further industrial, human and cost factors are discussed to establish project competiveness. The main findings show a potential to reduce assembly time of systems equipping operations by…
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Automatic Temporary Fastener Installation System for Wingbox Assembly

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Electroimpact Inc.-Kyle Pritz, Brent Etzel
Xian Aircraft Co.-Zheng Wei
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-2085
Published 2016-09-27 by SAE International in United States
The automation cycle time of wing assembly can be shortened by the automated installation of single-sided temporary fasteners to provide temporary part clamping and doweling during panel drilling. Feeding these fasteners poses problems due to their complexity in design and overall heavy weight. In the past, Electroimpact has remotely fed these fasteners by blowing them through pneumatic tubing. This technique has resulted in occasional damage to fasteners during delivery and a complex feed system that requires frequent maintenance.Due to these issues, Electroimpact has developed a new fully automated single-sided temporary fastening system for installation of the LISI Clampberry fasteners in wing panels for the C919 wing factory in Yanliang, China. The feed system stores fasteners in gravity-fed cartridges on the end effector near the point of installation. The cartridge placement at the end effector eliminates the need for pneumatic feed tubes in addition to limiting input sensors to cartridge identification only. By reducing pneumatics, sensors, and controls, less maintenance is expected for the fastener storage system. When a fastener is requested by the machine, a…
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Plate Cartridge Compact Flexible Automatic Feed System

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Electroimpact Inc.-Carter L. Boad, Kevin Brandenstein
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-2080
Published 2016-09-27 by SAE International in United States
The newest generation of automated fastening machines require a feed system that is smaller, more flexible, and faster than any currently available. The feed system must be compact enough to fit on a robot base, yet have a capacity large enough to support unmanned production for hours. A large variety of fasteners must be supported and the entire system must be reloaded or reconfigured in minutes to match the next work piece being assembled by the machine. When requested by the part program, the correct fastener must be released directly and immediately into the feed tube to minimize cycle time. This paper describes a new “plate cartridge” feed system developed to meet these needs.
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Lightweight Composite Air Cargo Containers

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

AECOM-Gergis W. William
West Virginia University-Samir N. Shoukry, Jacky C. Prucz, Mariana M. William
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-2119
Published 2016-09-27 by SAE International in United States
Air cargo containers are used to load freight on various types of aircrafts to expedite their handling. Fuel cost is the largest contributor to the total cost of ownership of an air cargo container. Therefore, a better fuel economy could be achieved by reducing the weight of such containers. This paper aims at developing innovative, lightweight design concepts for air cargo containers that would allow for weight reduction in the air cargo transportation industry. For this purpose, innovative design and assembly concepts of lightweight design configurations of air cargo containers have been developed through the applications of lightweight composites. A scaled model prototype of a typical air cargo container was built to assess the technical feasibility and economic viability of creating such a container from fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composite materials. The paper is the authoritative source for the abstract.
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Safety Release Fasteners Enable New Cabin/Cargo Decompression Concept

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Airbus Operations GmbH-Ralf Schomaker, Björn Knickrehm, Jürgen Langediers
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-2082
Published 2016-09-27 by SAE International in United States
In the frame of incremental product improvement, AIRBUS has developed and implemented a new innovative rapid decompression / pressure relieve concept for the cargo compartment area. The core change lays with detaching the complete cargo lining panels from the substructure in case of a rapid decompression in the cargo area instead of using dedicated blow in panels. In that way, pressure equilibrium can be achieved by air flow through the opened areas around the cargo lining panels rather than through specific blow out / blow in venting areas. The key for this is a self-detaching fastener AIRBUS has developed in an outstanding cooperation with ARCONIC Fastening Systems & Rings (former Alcoa Fastening Systems & Rings) in Kelkheim, Germany. These fasteners are installed to keep the cargo lining panels in place and tight against smoke in case of fire which is one of the main purposes for their use. In case of a rapid decompression event in the cargo area, the multi-piece self-detaching fastener fails within a defined timeframe and releases the ceiling and sidewall panels.…
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Power Quality Assessment through Stochastic Equivalent Circuit Analysis

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Air Force Research Lab-Jane Thompson
PC Krause & Associates-Rodney Yeu, Jason Wells
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-1988
Published 2016-09-20 by SAE International in United States
Movement toward more-electric architectures in military and commercial airborne systems has led to electrical power systems (EPSs) with complex power flow dynamics and advanced technologies specifically designed to improve power quality in the system. As such, there is a need for tools that can quickly analyze the impact of technology insertion on the system-level dynamic transient and spectral power quality and assess tradeoffs between impact on power quality versus weight and volume. Traditionally, this type of system level analysis is performed through computationally intensive time-domain simulations involving high fidelity models or left until the hardware fabrication and integration stage. In order to provide a more rapid analysis prior to hardware development and integration, stochastic equivalent circuit analysis is developed that can provide power quality assessment directly in the frequency domain.Stochastic equivalent circuit analysis calculates network voltage probability distribution utilizing stochastic equivalent circuits assembled into a candidate power system. Utilization of stochastic equivalent circuits allows for rapid analysis of the electric power system under different configurations where the effect of device insertion/removal on power quality is…
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An Investigation into the Tradespace of Advanced Wide-Band Gap Semiconductor Devices in a Full-Bridge DC-DC Converter

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Villanova University-Nisha Kondrath
WPAFB-Nathaniel Smith
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-1990
Published 2016-09-20 by SAE International in United States
In aerospace applications, it is important to have efficient, small, affordable, and reliable power conversion units with high power density to supply a wide range of loads. Use of wide-band gap devices, such as Silicon Carbide (SiC) and Gallium Nitride (GaN) devices, in power electronic converters is expected to reduce the device losses and need for extensive thermal management systems in power converters, as well as facilitate high-frequency operation, thereby reducing the passive component sizes and increasing the power density. A performance comparison of state-of-the art power devices in a 10 kW full-bridge dc-dc buck converter operating in continuous conduction mode (CCM) and at switching frequencies above 100 kHz will be presented in this manuscript. Power devices under consideration are silicon (Si) IGBT with Si antiparallel diodes, Si IGBT with SiC antiparallel diodes, Si MOSFETs, SiC MOSFETs, and enhancement-mode GaN transistors. A 10 kW full-bridge dc-dc converter operating in the buck mode will be designed and tested using the LTSpice circuit simulator. Steady-state and switching transition waveforms will be presented for each case to aid…
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Utilizing Behavioral Models in Experimental Hardware-in-the-Loop

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

PC Krause & Associates-Michael Boyd
US Air Force-Chad N. Miller
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-2042
Published 2016-09-20 by SAE International in United States
This paper introduces a method for conducting experimental hardware-in-the-loop (xHIL), in which behavioral-level models are coupled with an advanced power emulator (APE) to emulate an electrical load on a power generation system. The emulator is commanded by behavioral-level models running on an advanced real-time simulator that has the capability to leverage Central Processing Units (CPUs) and field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) to meet strict real-time execution requirements. The paper will be broken down into four topics: 1) the development of a solution to target behavioral-level models to an advanced, real-time simulation device, 2) the development of a high-bandwidth, high-power emulation capability, 3) the integration of the real-time simulation device and the APE, and 4) the application of the emulation system (simulator and emulator) in an xHIL experiment. The first topic will be addressed by targeting a behavioral-level model of a brushless dc motor drive with a pulse-width modulated inverter to a real-time simulator. The results of the real-time model will be compared to that of its non-real-time counterpart. For the second topic, hardware descriptions and…
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Minimizing Aircraft ECS Bleed Off-Take - Virtual Integrated Aircraft Applications

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Finmeccanica-Pierpaolo Borrelli
Siemens Industry Software-Deniz Unlu, Federico Cappuzzo, Olivier Broca
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-2054
Published 2016-09-20 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents the activities foreseen on the Leonardo Aircraft Division EIS (Entry In Service) 2020 derivative aircraft performed in the frame of the FP7 European research project TOICA (Thermal Overall Integrated Concept of Aircraft). On board air systems for conventional aircraft are fed by the bleed off-take which penalizes the amount of power available to the turbine of jet or turboprop engines. In order to minimize such operating penalties and optimize the energy efficiency of the overall aircraft, it is of major interest to support trade-offs at aircraft level including aircraft systems as early as possible in the development cycle. The study presents the Virtual Integrated Aircraft methodology and associated simulation activities relying on the system simulation platform LMS Imagine.Lab. This methodology is also relying on concept of flexible model and pyramid of models developed in the context of TOICA. Several aircraft configurations and ECS (Environmental Control System) packs architectures are studied and the different steps of the methodology are shown up to the trade between different aircraft configurations. From the very beginning of…
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