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ERRATUM: Technology Innovations in World War 1 Airplane Design

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Boeing Commercial Airplanes-Paul Dees
Independent Consultant-Scott Eberhardt
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-2581.01
Published 2015-09-15 by SAE International in United States
The original paper published mistakenly did not include Paul Dees, Boeing in the author listing.
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Bleed Air Contamination Financial Related Costs on Board Commercial Flights

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Kansas State University-Maher Shehadi, Byron Jones, Mohammad Hosni
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-9007
Published 2015-12-02 by SAE International in United States
This paper reviews reportable aviation incidents and associated cost losses. Aviation incidents include visible smoke incidents inside aircraft passenger cabins, occurrences of fumes and oily smells, and illness cases reported by flight crew members in 2012, for US based carriers for domestic flights and all international flights that either originated or terminated in the US. Cost losses include direct and indirect costs endured by different airlines due to diversions from the scheduled flight route, returns to departure airport, expedited arrival procedures, and cancellation of flights on ground. Two case study scenarios are presented to illustrate minimum and maximum costs limits. Sources used to collect data for this article include the Bureau of Labor Statistics, Federal Aviation Administration online database, Research and Innovative Technology Administration database (RITA), and official airline websites.Average financial loss is estimated to be approximately $32,000 to $47,000 per aviation incident totaling approximately $4.5M to $7M US dollars in 2012. This figure could be doubled when under-reporting of such incidents is taken into consideration.
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A Multifaceted Investigation and Intervention into the Process of Flight Clearance for UAS Experimental Flight Test

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Naval Postgraduate School-Richard C. Millar
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-2385
Published 2015-09-15 by SAE International in United States
Unmanned aviation systems (UAS) acquired for US Navy for military roles are developed in the context of NAVAIR's rigorous and well-established policies, procedures and processes employed in the acquisition and development of manned aircraft. A key process is the preparation and approval of interim flight clearances (IFC) prior to flight test to ensure the aircraft is airworthy and thus safe to operate. Due to the perceived risks of UAS experimental flight test, the use of this process has been mandated for all Navy organizations, including use of commercially available UAS in research projects. This policy has proved to be a challenge, impeding and discouraging the use of UAS in research and experimental projects. Currently, the cost of compliance is unaffordable and IFC preparation and approval time are inconsistent with research cycle time expectations. The research reported here investigated the difficulties and advocates solutions devised through the application of systems engineering. In particular, a hazard and risk analysis tool exploiting Bayesian belief networks was developed and demonstrated in support of the interim flight clearance process for…
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Testing Touch Screens in Realistic Aeronautic Turbulent Conditions (Light to Severe)

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Arts et Métiers ParisTech - I2M-Sandra Guérard, Jean Luc BAROU
Thales Avionics-Sylvain Hourlier, Xavier Servantie
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-2532
Published 2015-09-15 by SAE International in United States
As touch screens are everywhere in the consumer market Thales has launched in depth evaluations on their introduction in the cockpit. One of the challenges is to verify its compatibility with in flight use under turbulence conditions, including light, moderate and severe. In flight accelerometer collections were performed to provide us with a baseline for choosing between possible simulation solutions. Thales recognized early on the need for such a tool as it would enable us to define recommendations for our HMI designs. The objectives were first to validate specific complex touch/gestures using all the potential of touch interactions for novel cockpit Human Machine Interfaces and second to look into the various physical anchoring solutions capable of facilitating touch screens interactions in aeronautical turbulent environments. Given the 6 axis accelerometer profiles that were collected, only an hexapod structure was capable of reproducing those profiles with acceptable validity. This paper presents the works that enabled us to validate such an hexapod as a viable simulator for our tests and the development of an avionics platform for touch…
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The Jet Fuel Hydrodynamic Cavitation Bubble Size with Cavitation Power and Energy from Rayleigh-Plesset Equation

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

UTC Aerospace Systems-Daniel Bartholme
United Technologies Aerospace-Michael Cass
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-2389
Published 2015-09-15 by SAE International in United States
Cavitation erosion in aircraft engine and control systems is a major concern in hydrodynamic power units. In developing turbulent flow of low pressure and high velocities, a certain amount of cavitation erosion is not unusual. Cavitation can occur with the presence of fuel vapor or air bubbles dissolved in the fuel tank that are transported through the system. Cavitation erosion is caused by collapse of the bubble, which occurs violently and creates a pressure shock wave of fluid. Striking a solid surface, the shock wave can cause progressive damage if it persists. A kinetic cavitation power rate is developed to make a meaningful estimation of the cavitation erosion rate theoretically, which then can be validated with laboratory experiments. Theoretically, we manipulate parameters such as bubble size, collapse pressure, and energy for a given fuel system design, finding variation within each component of the system. However, cavitation erosion rates vary wildly even when relative developments and comparisons are made. These variations are attributed to the simplicity of governing equations, boundary condition settings, and bubble sizing and…
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Modelling and Evaluation of Aircraft Contrails for 4-Dimensional Trajectory Optimisation

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

RMIT University-Yixiang Lim, Alessandro Gardi, Roberto Sabatini
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-2538
Published 2015-09-15 by SAE International in United States
Contrails and aircraft-induced cirrus clouds are reputed being the largest components of aviation-induced global warming, even greater than carbon dioxide (CO2) exhaust emissions by aircraft. This article presents a contrail model algorithm specifically developed to be integrated within a multi-objective flight trajectory optimization software framework. The purpose of the algorithm is to supply to the optimizer a measure of the estimated radiative forcing from the contrails generated by the aircraft while flying a specific trajectory. In order to determine the precise measure, a comprehensive model is employed exploiting the Schmidt-Appleman criterion and ice-supersaturation regions. Additional parameters such as the solar zenith angle, contrail lifetime and spread are also considered. The optimization of flight trajectories encompassing such contrail model allows for selective avoidance of the positive radiative forcing conditions, such as only avoiding persistent contrails, or contrails which lead to negative radiative forcing. The model assesses the radiative forcing associated with 4-Dimensional (4D) trajectories in a 4D weather field, encompassing both the local time-of-day and the contrail lifetime. Some preliminary algorithm validation activities are presented, including…
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Average Probability Calculation Methods for System Safety Analysis

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Boeing Commercial Airplanes-Anapathur V. Ramesh
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-2436
Published 2015-09-15 by SAE International in United States
Fault-tolerance in commercial aircraft applications is typically achieved by redundancy. In such redundant systems the primary component is checked before the start of a flight to see if it operates correctly. The aircraft will not take off unless the primary is functioning. Airplane manufacturers must certify the airplane systems to be safe for flight. One means of safety certification is by safety analysis which shows that the probability of failure in a typical flight is bounded. The probability bound requirement for a system is based on the criticality of system failure.Usually backup components are checked at intervals that span multiple flights. The first backup may be checked more frequently than the second or higher levels. This leads to flights where the system may have latent faults in the backup components. The probability of failure in such cases varies from flight to flight due to the different exposure times for components in the system. So we are led into the concept of “Average Probability of Failure per Flight”.AC/AMC 25.1309 and SAE ARP 4761 document simple formulas…
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System for Recirculation of Mobile Tooling

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Electroimpact Inc.-Benjamen D. Hempstead, Scott Smith
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-2494
Published 2015-09-15 by SAE International in United States
Aircraft assembly systems which require tooling or machinery to pulse or move between multiple positions within a factory can be positioned with high repeatability without high performance foundations or sweeping out large areas of floorspace. An example shows a system of large left and right-hand frames which are positioned at 3 sequential manufacturing steps and then recirculated to the start of production via a central return aisle. The frames are 41 ton actual weight and are 72′ long, similar to a rail car. The system achieves rectangular motion for the recirculation path. The supporting and moving system incorporates low-cost rail in a floor with minimal preparation and simple to use controls. The system is also easily reconfigured if the manufacturing system needs to be altered to meet rate or flow requirements.
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Reduced Order Model Approach for Efficient Aircraft Loads Prediction

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Siemens PLM Software-Yves Lemmens
Siemens PLM Software-University of Bristol-Michele Castellani
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-2568
Published 2015-09-15 by SAE International in United States
Flight loads calculations play a fundamental role in the development and certification of an aircraft and have an impact on the structural sizing and weight. The number of load cases required by the airworthiness regulations is in the order of tens of thousands and the analysis must be repeated for each design iteration. On large aircraft, CS-25 explicitly requires taking into account for loads prediction, airframe flexibility, unsteady aerodynamics and interaction of systems and structure, leading to computationally expensive numerical models. Thus there is a clear benefit in speeding-up this calculation process. This paper presents a methodology aiming to significantly reduce the computational time to predict loads due to gust and maneuvers. The procedure is based on Model Order Reduction, whose goal is the generation of a Reduced Order Model (ROM) able to limit the computational cost compared to a full analysis whilst retaining accuracy. The method is applied to a commercial transport aircraft modeled with beam elements, unsteady aerodynamics based on Doublet Lattice Method and servo-hydraulic actuators for the control surfaces. The aeroelastic equations…
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Modeling Space Operations Systems Using SysML as to Enable Anomaly Detection

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

ERC Inc.-Tom Clark
University of Central Florida-Luis Rabelo
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-2388
Published 2015-09-15 by SAE International in United States
Although a multitude of anomaly detection and fault isolation programs can be found in the research, there does not appear to be any work published on architectural templates that could take advantage of multiple programs and integrate them into the desired systems. More specifically, there is an absence of a methodological process for generating anomaly detection and fault isolation designs to either embed within new system concepts, or supplement existing schemes.This paper introduces a new approach based on systems engineering and the System Modeling Language (SysML). Preliminary concepts of the proposed approach are explained. In addition, a case study is also mentioned.
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