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Using Model-Based Security Engineering in the Development of Complex Aircraft Cabin Systems

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Hamburg University of Technology-Hartmut Hintze, Ralf God
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-2445
Published 2015-09-15 by SAE International in United States
The increasing functionality associated with the rising complexity of aircraft cabin systems which are used by cabin crew, passengers, maintenance staff and other stakeholders, requires a reconsideration of the methods for the development of aircraft cabin systems. This paper deals with a model-based security engineering approach based on the so called Three-V-Model as an appropriate process model, which represents the governing system engineering process (SEP) associated with the safety engineering process (SafEP) and the security engineering process (SecEP). All three processes are pursued concurrently and are interacting reciprocally by working within the same system model on each development level. We describe in detail the involved model-based security engineering activities of the SecEP and the integration of the CORAS risk analysis method in a consistent System Modeling Language (SysML) approach. Finally we demonstrate how the interactions between the SEP and the SecEP with the CORAS risk analysis method are realized within a single SysML model.
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Integrated Ball-Screw Based Upset Process for Index Head Rivets Used in Wing Panel Assembly

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Electroimpact Inc-Curtis Hayes
Electroimpact Inc.-Paul Haworth
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-2491
Published 2015-09-15 by SAE International in United States
A new high speed forming process for fatigue rated index head rivets used in wing panel assembly using ball-screw based servo squeeze actuation has been developed. The new process is achieved using a combination of force and position control and is capable of forming to 40,000 lbs at rates of up to 200,000 lbs/second whilst holding the part location to within +/− 10 thousandths of an inch.Multi-axis riveting machines often have positioning axes that are also used for fastener upset. It is often the case that while a CNC is used for positioning control, another secondary controller is used to perform the fastener upset. In the new process, it has been possible to combine the control of the upset process with the machine CNC, thus eliminating any separate controllers. The fastener upset force profile is controlled throughout the forming of the rivet by using a closed loop force control system that has a load cell mounted directly behind the stringer side forming tool.Panel assembly where the components are not pre-tacked is referred to as a…
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Utilizing Discrete Event Simulation for Schedule Analysis: Processes and Lessons Learned from NASA's GOPD Integrated Timeline Model

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

University of Central Florida-Angelo C. Conner, Luis Rabelo
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-2397
Published 2015-09-15 by SAE International in United States
In planning, simulation models create microcosms, small universes that operate based on assumed principles. While this can be powerful, the information it can provide is limited by the assumptions made and the designed operation of the model. When performing schedule planning and analysis, modelers are often provided with timelines representing project tasks, their relationships, and estimates related to durations, resource requirements, etc. These timelines can be created with programs such as Microsoft Excel or Microsoft Project. There are several important attributes these timelines have; they represent a nominal flow (meaning they do not represent stochastic processes), and they are not necessarily governed by dates or subjected to a calendar. Attributes such as these become important in project planning since timelines often serve as the basis for creating schedules. Simulation techniques such as discrete event simulation (DES) provide the opportunity to introduce variability into the timeline tasks, as well as subject the timeline to certain parameters in order to create a broader understanding of timeframes and schedule impacts. NASA utilizes DES to provide analysis for certain…
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Wearable Technologies as a Path to Single-Pilot Part 121 Operations

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Clauss Concepts-Robert Moehle, Jason Clauss
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-2440
Published 2015-09-15 by SAE International in United States
Labor costs rank second only to fuel in expenses for commercial air transports. Labor issues are a growing concern in the airline industry, with an impending worldwide pilot shortage. One solution proposed and requested by some of the industry leaders is to allow a single flight crew member to operate the aircraft.Safety concerns represent the dominant barrier to single-pilot Part 121 operations. The FAA and Congress consistently demonstrate a bias toward conservatism in their regulation of airlines and commercial aircraft. Bureaucrats and the general public fall prey to isolated news stories that highlight pilot error and anchor their viewpoint on further regulating a two-person crew. Yet, in an alarming spate of recent airline accidents, the presence of multiple crewmembers did nothing to prevent, and actually may have contributed to, the crash.Technology is not the problem. The real challenge is to convince Federal regulators and the flying public that Part 121 operations can be performed as safely with a single pilot as with two. This will require a redesign of the flight deck for next generation…
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Finite Element Analysis Simulation of a Fireproof Test for an Aircraft Propulsion Engine Mount Structure Made of Titanium

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Lord Corporation-Douglas Leicht
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-2621
Published 2015-09-15 by SAE International in United States
Aviation regulations requires that engine mounts, and other flight structures located in designated fire zones must be constructed of fireproof material so that they are capable of withstanding the effects of fire. Historically, steel is defined as being inherently fireproof, however, titanium was not. Therefore, a fireproof test was conducted using 6AL-4V titanium structure for the attachment of the propulsion system on a mid-size business jet to satisfy FAA Federal Aviation Requirement 25.865. To determine if the titanium structure would be able to support normal operating loads during the fire event, finite element analysis was performed on the titanium structure simulating the fire test. The fire test simulates a fire on the aircraft from the propulsion system by using a burner with jet fuel exposing the component to a 2000 °F (1093°C) flame. The 2000 °F (1093°C) Flame is calibrated based on FAA Advisory Circular AC20-135. The 2000 °F (1093°C) flame is modeled as a series of convection coefficients across the entire surface of the component. The conductive and convective thermal properties are used for…
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Bivariate “Cut-Glue” Approximation of Strongly Nonlinear Mathematical Models Based on Experimental Data

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Don State Technical University-Rudolf Neydorf
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-2394
Published 2015-09-15 by SAE International in United States
Researchers meet the difficulties of experimental and computer modeling of a statics and dynamics of aircrafts connected with their essential nonlinearity. This is due to the fact that the aerodynamic effects of the interaction complex aircraft designs or their models with air environment generate abrupt changes of the character of the some dependencies. Aerodynamic coefficients in the model of interaction can be obtained only or by full-scale tests or by computer simulations. Therefore, the construction of mathematical models of the objects is associated with the mathematical processing of the points of the experimental data. In this case, the experimentally obtained dependence is usually essentially nonlinear up to piecewise, or even discontinuous nature. Approximation of such dependencies, even with the use of spline functions, is very difficult and is associated with large errors. The solution to this problem was proposed by the author and was reported to the ASME Congress in November 2014 and published in the Proceedings of the Congress in its final form. In that work possibility of “approximating&multiplicative&additive” processing of dot experimental data…
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Investigating Combustion in a Mini Internal Combustion Engine

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-Asish K Sarangi, Pramod S Mehta, A Ramesh
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-9002
Published 2015-09-01 by SAE International in United States
Owing to a high power-to-weight ratio, mini internal combustion engine is used in propelling an unmanned air vehicle. In comparison to the performance characteristics, the investigations on the combustion aspects of mini engines are scanty. This investigation concerns study of the combustion process of a mini engine and its variability. For this purpose, the experimental cylinder pressure histories were obtained on a laboratory set-up of a 7.45 cm3 capacity mini engine. The analyses of experimental data at different throttle settings reveal that there existed a varied range of rich and lean misfiring limits around a reference equivalence ratio that corresponds to the respective maximum indicated mean effective pressure. At the limiting equivalence ratios, cylinder pressure measurements showed a high degree of cycle-to-cycle variations. In some cases, a slow combustion or misfiring event preceded a rapid combustion. From the energy release analysis, it is observed that the combustion rate was very rapid in the initial phase which subsequently slowed down. Also, there are two peaks of energy release observed under rich mixture conditions.
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Comparative Usage of Two Similar Airframes

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Wichita State University-Linda Kliment, Kamran Rokhsaz
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-9006
Published 2015-09-01 by SAE International in United States
In-service data from two Bombardier business jets, a Global 5000 and a Global Express XRS, have been compared. Flight data has been analyzed from both airframes with comparable number of ground-air-ground cycles. Individual flight phase have been examined and compared between the two airframes. Primary emphasis has been placed on airframe usage. The influence of primary mission on ground-air-ground cycles has been highlighted in the form of ground and flight loads, as well as dynamics of the flights. It is demonstrated that safe-life maintenance approach may have to be adjusted to account for the airframe usage.
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Improved Landing Gear Shimmy Model

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Skynetics-G. Westly Davidson
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-9003
Published 2015-09-01 by SAE International in United States
This report introduces a new conceptual model to study aircraft landing gear shimmy (LG-Shimmy). The new formulation offers the engineering analysts an improved LG representation allowing better ability to capture aircraft landing gear shimmy behaviour. The improved model is introduced along with two historical models common in the analysis of shimmy. Parameter values are presented to populate the models, and a verification review is performed. The benefits of the improved model are highlighted.
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A Theoretical Approach of UNIT (Unified Nuclear Integral Technology) Propulsion and its Potential for Future Applications in Space Exploration

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Jaya Engineering College-Sarath Ramachan Dran
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-9004
Published 2015-09-01 by SAE International in United States
Space exploration is the present inevitable challenge for researchers. Various theoretical propulsion concepts have been evolved over the past years for space missions. Their potential remains as a key factor for the spacecraft to travel deeper into space in a shorter mission duration. The propulsion concept UNIT is an integrated nuclear propulsion technique that provides high entry, descent and landing (EDL) performance in such short duration to conquer other galaxies. This paper describes the theoretical approach of the UNIT propulsion system in detail. UNIT produces the highest energy possible by consuming nuclear fuel and possess the highest potential that opens new opportunities for space exploration. The principle is that the neutrons from the fusion are deliberately allowed to induce fission. It uses National Ignition Facility's laser beam for inertial confinement fusion followed by utilizing the power from tubular solid fuel cell. Thus, the net thrust is produced from the expansion of the combined plasma of the nuclear fusion and nuclear fission reactions through the nozzle.
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