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ERRATUM: Technology Innovations in World War 1 Airplane Design

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Boeing Commercial Airplanes-Paul Dees
Independent Consultant-Scott Eberhardt
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-2581.01
Published 2015-09-15 by SAE International in United States
The original paper published mistakenly did not include Paul Dees, Boeing in the author listing.
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Bleed Air Contamination Financial Related Costs on Board Commercial Flights

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Kansas State University-Maher Shehadi, Byron Jones, Mohammad Hosni
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-9007
Published 2015-12-02 by SAE International in United States
This paper reviews reportable aviation incidents and associated cost losses. Aviation incidents include visible smoke incidents inside aircraft passenger cabins, occurrences of fumes and oily smells, and illness cases reported by flight crew members in 2012, for US based carriers for domestic flights and all international flights that either originated or terminated in the US. Cost losses include direct and indirect costs endured by different airlines due to diversions from the scheduled flight route, returns to departure airport, expedited arrival procedures, and cancellation of flights on ground. Two case study scenarios are presented to illustrate minimum and maximum costs limits. Sources used to collect data for this article include the Bureau of Labor Statistics, Federal Aviation Administration online database, Research and Innovative Technology Administration database (RITA), and official airline websites.Average financial loss is estimated to be approximately $32,000 to $47,000 per aviation incident totaling approximately $4.5M to $7M US dollars in 2012. This figure could be doubled when under-reporting of such incidents is taken into consideration.
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Using Model-Based Security Engineering in the Development of Complex Aircraft Cabin Systems

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Hamburg University of Technology-Hartmut Hintze, Ralf God
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-2445
Published 2015-09-15 by SAE International in United States
The increasing functionality associated with the rising complexity of aircraft cabin systems which are used by cabin crew, passengers, maintenance staff and other stakeholders, requires a reconsideration of the methods for the development of aircraft cabin systems. This paper deals with a model-based security engineering approach based on the so called Three-V-Model as an appropriate process model, which represents the governing system engineering process (SEP) associated with the safety engineering process (SafEP) and the security engineering process (SecEP). All three processes are pursued concurrently and are interacting reciprocally by working within the same system model on each development level. We describe in detail the involved model-based security engineering activities of the SecEP and the integration of the CORAS risk analysis method in a consistent System Modeling Language (SysML) approach. Finally we demonstrate how the interactions between the SEP and the SecEP with the CORAS risk analysis method are realized within a single SysML model.
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Integrated Ball-Screw Based Upset Process for Index Head Rivets Used in Wing Panel Assembly

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Electroimpact Inc-Curtis Hayes
Electroimpact Inc.-Paul Haworth
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-2491
Published 2015-09-15 by SAE International in United States
A new high speed forming process for fatigue rated index head rivets used in wing panel assembly using ball-screw based servo squeeze actuation has been developed. The new process is achieved using a combination of force and position control and is capable of forming to 40,000 lbs at rates of up to 200,000 lbs/second whilst holding the part location to within +/− 10 thousandths of an inch.Multi-axis riveting machines often have positioning axes that are also used for fastener upset. It is often the case that while a CNC is used for positioning control, another secondary controller is used to perform the fastener upset. In the new process, it has been possible to combine the control of the upset process with the machine CNC, thus eliminating any separate controllers. The fastener upset force profile is controlled throughout the forming of the rivet by using a closed loop force control system that has a load cell mounted directly behind the stringer side forming tool.Panel assembly where the components are not pre-tacked is referred to as a…
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A Multifaceted Investigation and Intervention into the Process of Flight Clearance for UAS Experimental Flight Test

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Naval Postgraduate School-Richard C. Millar
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-2385
Published 2015-09-15 by SAE International in United States
Unmanned aviation systems (UAS) acquired for US Navy for military roles are developed in the context of NAVAIR's rigorous and well-established policies, procedures and processes employed in the acquisition and development of manned aircraft. A key process is the preparation and approval of interim flight clearances (IFC) prior to flight test to ensure the aircraft is airworthy and thus safe to operate. Due to the perceived risks of UAS experimental flight test, the use of this process has been mandated for all Navy organizations, including use of commercially available UAS in research projects. This policy has proved to be a challenge, impeding and discouraging the use of UAS in research and experimental projects. Currently, the cost of compliance is unaffordable and IFC preparation and approval time are inconsistent with research cycle time expectations. The research reported here investigated the difficulties and advocates solutions devised through the application of systems engineering. In particular, a hazard and risk analysis tool exploiting Bayesian belief networks was developed and demonstrated in support of the interim flight clearance process for…
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Testing Touch Screens in Realistic Aeronautic Turbulent Conditions (Light to Severe)

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Arts et Métiers ParisTech - I2M-Sandra Guérard, Jean Luc BAROU
Thales Avionics-Sylvain Hourlier, Xavier Servantie
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-2532
Published 2015-09-15 by SAE International in United States
As touch screens are everywhere in the consumer market Thales has launched in depth evaluations on their introduction in the cockpit. One of the challenges is to verify its compatibility with in flight use under turbulence conditions, including light, moderate and severe. In flight accelerometer collections were performed to provide us with a baseline for choosing between possible simulation solutions. Thales recognized early on the need for such a tool as it would enable us to define recommendations for our HMI designs. The objectives were first to validate specific complex touch/gestures using all the potential of touch interactions for novel cockpit Human Machine Interfaces and second to look into the various physical anchoring solutions capable of facilitating touch screens interactions in aeronautical turbulent environments. Given the 6 axis accelerometer profiles that were collected, only an hexapod structure was capable of reproducing those profiles with acceptable validity. This paper presents the works that enabled us to validate such an hexapod as a viable simulator for our tests and the development of an avionics platform for touch…
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The Jet Fuel Hydrodynamic Cavitation Bubble Size with Cavitation Power and Energy from Rayleigh-Plesset Equation

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

UTC Aerospace Systems-Daniel Bartholme
United Technologies Aerospace-Michael Cass
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-2389
Published 2015-09-15 by SAE International in United States
Cavitation erosion in aircraft engine and control systems is a major concern in hydrodynamic power units. In developing turbulent flow of low pressure and high velocities, a certain amount of cavitation erosion is not unusual. Cavitation can occur with the presence of fuel vapor or air bubbles dissolved in the fuel tank that are transported through the system. Cavitation erosion is caused by collapse of the bubble, which occurs violently and creates a pressure shock wave of fluid. Striking a solid surface, the shock wave can cause progressive damage if it persists. A kinetic cavitation power rate is developed to make a meaningful estimation of the cavitation erosion rate theoretically, which then can be validated with laboratory experiments. Theoretically, we manipulate parameters such as bubble size, collapse pressure, and energy for a given fuel system design, finding variation within each component of the system. However, cavitation erosion rates vary wildly even when relative developments and comparisons are made. These variations are attributed to the simplicity of governing equations, boundary condition settings, and bubble sizing and…
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Modelling and Evaluation of Aircraft Contrails for 4-Dimensional Trajectory Optimisation

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

RMIT University-Yixiang Lim, Alessandro Gardi, Roberto Sabatini
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-2538
Published 2015-09-15 by SAE International in United States
Contrails and aircraft-induced cirrus clouds are reputed being the largest components of aviation-induced global warming, even greater than carbon dioxide (CO2) exhaust emissions by aircraft. This article presents a contrail model algorithm specifically developed to be integrated within a multi-objective flight trajectory optimization software framework. The purpose of the algorithm is to supply to the optimizer a measure of the estimated radiative forcing from the contrails generated by the aircraft while flying a specific trajectory. In order to determine the precise measure, a comprehensive model is employed exploiting the Schmidt-Appleman criterion and ice-supersaturation regions. Additional parameters such as the solar zenith angle, contrail lifetime and spread are also considered. The optimization of flight trajectories encompassing such contrail model allows for selective avoidance of the positive radiative forcing conditions, such as only avoiding persistent contrails, or contrails which lead to negative radiative forcing. The model assesses the radiative forcing associated with 4-Dimensional (4D) trajectories in a 4D weather field, encompassing both the local time-of-day and the contrail lifetime. Some preliminary algorithm validation activities are presented, including…
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Utilizing Discrete Event Simulation for Schedule Analysis: Processes and Lessons Learned from NASA's GOPD Integrated Timeline Model

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

University of Central Florida-Angelo C. Conner, Luis Rabelo
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-2397
Published 2015-09-15 by SAE International in United States
In planning, simulation models create microcosms, small universes that operate based on assumed principles. While this can be powerful, the information it can provide is limited by the assumptions made and the designed operation of the model. When performing schedule planning and analysis, modelers are often provided with timelines representing project tasks, their relationships, and estimates related to durations, resource requirements, etc. These timelines can be created with programs such as Microsoft Excel or Microsoft Project. There are several important attributes these timelines have; they represent a nominal flow (meaning they do not represent stochastic processes), and they are not necessarily governed by dates or subjected to a calendar. Attributes such as these become important in project planning since timelines often serve as the basis for creating schedules. Simulation techniques such as discrete event simulation (DES) provide the opportunity to introduce variability into the timeline tasks, as well as subject the timeline to certain parameters in order to create a broader understanding of timeframes and schedule impacts. NASA utilizes DES to provide analysis for certain…
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Average Probability Calculation Methods for System Safety Analysis

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Boeing Commercial Airplanes-Anapathur V. Ramesh
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-2436
Published 2015-09-15 by SAE International in United States
Fault-tolerance in commercial aircraft applications is typically achieved by redundancy. In such redundant systems the primary component is checked before the start of a flight to see if it operates correctly. The aircraft will not take off unless the primary is functioning. Airplane manufacturers must certify the airplane systems to be safe for flight. One means of safety certification is by safety analysis which shows that the probability of failure in a typical flight is bounded. The probability bound requirement for a system is based on the criticality of system failure.Usually backup components are checked at intervals that span multiple flights. The first backup may be checked more frequently than the second or higher levels. This leads to flights where the system may have latent faults in the backup components. The probability of failure in such cases varies from flight to flight due to the different exposure times for components in the system. So we are led into the concept of “Average Probability of Failure per Flight”.AC/AMC 25.1309 and SAE ARP 4761 document simple formulas…
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