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On Electromagnetic Shielding in Composite Aircraft: An Applied Electromagnetic Approach

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Bombardier Aeronautique-Mohammad Danish Khan
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-9004
Published 2014-12-01 by SAE International in United States
Effectiveness of current electromagnetic shielding techniques in composite aircraft has been called into question several times before and is a subject of interest and research in the aerospace industry. We present an analytical approach to understand the issues in detail. It was found using first order approximations that a panel with Aluminum expanded metallic foil (ExMF) along with carbon fiber plies used on composite aircraft provides fair albeit lower electromagnetic shielding from source frequencies of a few KHz until well into MHz range when compared to an aluminum panel used on metallic aircraft.This was primarily attributed to relatively large skin depth value at low frequencies which was due to: a) low electrical conductivity of aluminum ExMF when compared to bulk aluminum; b) low electrical conductivity of resin impregnated carbon fiber layers and; c) very thin layer of aluminum ExMF used.It was also found that as source frequency goes higher (between 800 MHz to 18 GHz range), fields penetrate through the aluminum ExMF and although they may get attenuated by the CFRP plies however, shielding effectiveness…
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Flex Track One Sided One Up Assembly

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Boeing Co.-Riley HansonSmith, Alan Merkley
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-2274
Published 2014-09-16 by SAE International in United States
The Boeing Company is striving to improve quality and reduce defects and injuries through the implementation of lightweight “Right Sized” automated drill and fasten equipment. This has lead to the factory adopting Boeing developed and supplier built flex track drill and countersink machines for drilling fuselage circumferential joins, wing panel to spar and wing splice stringers. The natural evolution of this technology is the addition of fastener installation to enable One Up Assembly. The critical component of One Up Assembly is keeping the joint squeezed tightly together to prevent burrs and debris at the interface. Traditionally this is done by two-sided machines providing concentric clamp up around the hole while it is being drilled. It was proposed that for stiff structure, the joint could be held together by beginning adjacent to a tack fastener, and assemble the joint sequentially using the adjacent hole clamp up from the previous hole to keep the joint clamped up. This process would significantly decrease the costs and complexity that is usually associated with two sided equipment involved in One…
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Modern Hybrid Systems for Critical Needs

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

JSR Micro Inc.-Lawrence Myron
Maxwell Technologies, Inc.-Rong Yan
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-2204
Published 2014-09-16 by SAE International in United States
For 70 years Yardney has been a leader in specialty battery and energy systems for military, space, avionics, weapon systems and undersea vehicles. In addition to battery systems, Yardney also delivers hybrid systems for ground, space, undersea and avionic applications. The beauty of hybrid systems, combining energy sources such as batteries, capacitors, fuel cells and solar, is that they can be used to optimize energy and power density, and with proper design, the systems can also lead to longevity of components and an overall cost savings. For ground applications, utilization of hybrid systems can assist in conservation of fuel by making vehicle applications more efficient. For space applications, satisfying pulses can be improved by a capacitor and battery hybrid energy storage system. To optimize aircraft performance and decrease operating costs, avionics are beginning to move towards more electric aircrafts (MEA). This embraces the concept of utilizing electrical power for driving aircraft subsystems currently powered by mechanical means. An important part of this concept is the development and demonstration of a hybrid (battery-capacitor) system of appropriate…
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E7000 ARJ -Manual Flexible Tooling for Horizontal Riveting System

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Electroimpact-Nicholas Lum
Xi'an Aircraft Industrial Corp.-Qun Luo
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-2250
Published 2014-09-16 by SAE International in United States
Electroimpact has designed and manufactured a flexible tooling system for the E7000-ARJ horizontal panel riveter. This tooling design accommodates panel sizes from 3.5m to 10m long, with a variety of straight and tapered curvatures. The tooling is re-configured manually and utilizes removable index plates that can be adapted to accommodate new panel types.This type of tooling is ideal for value-conscious applications where a single machine must process a large range of panel styles. Electroimpact is currently using this system to tool 17 different styles of pre-tacked panels on a single E7000-ARJ machine. This flexible system does not require large removable form boards or custom frames that index one type of panel. Instead it uses 4 form boards that are permanently mounted to the picture frame by linear rails, allowing them to index anywhere along the 10m working envelope. Each form board holds several rail mounted surface indexes that are adjusted to accommodate different panel curvatures.All index locations on the form boards and the sliding indexes are set by lightweight, removable, aluminum index plates. This allows…
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Real Time Path Correction of Industrial Robots with Direct End-Effector Feedback from a Laser Tracker

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

New River Kinematics-Santiago Droll
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-2248
Published 2014-09-16 by SAE International in United States
In contemporary industries the demand for very accurate robots is continuously growing. Yet, robot vendors are limited in the achievable accuracy of their robots, as they have no means to provide a direct end-effector feedback. Therefore, most approaches aim to identify an accurate model of the robotic system, thus providing compensation factors to correct the deflections. Models, however, are unable to represent the real physical system in a sufficient manner for path correction. The non-linearities in robotic systems are difficult to model and the dynamics cannot be neglected. A better approach is, therefore, to use direct end-effector position and orientation feedback from an external sensor as, e.g. a Leica laser tracker. The measured data can directly be compared to the nominal data from the path interpolator. Hence, the data are independent of the kinematic robot model. The residual errors can be used to calculate correction values in Cartesian space, which are mapped to each individual robot joint, thus providing a fast path correction algorithm. The evaluation of this procedure has shown that it enables the…
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Implementing Determinate Assembly for the Leading Edge Sub-Assembly of Aircraft Wing Manufacture

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Airbus Operations Ltd.-Marcus Rafla
University of Nottingham-Lucas Irving, Svetan Ratchev, Atanas Popov
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-2252
Published 2014-09-16 by SAE International in United States
The replacement for the current single-aisle aircraft will need to be manufactured at a rate significantly higher that of current production. One way that production rate can be increased is by reducing the processing time for assembly operations. This paper presents research that was applied to the build philosophy of the leading edge of a laminar flow European wing demonstrator. The paper describes the implementation of determinate assembly for the rib to bracket assembly interface.By optimising the diametric and the positional tolerances of the holes on the two bracket types and ribs, determinate assembly was successfully implemented. The bracket to rib interface is now secured with no tooling or post processes other than inserting and tightening the fastener. This will reduce the tooling costs and eliminates the need for local drilling, de-burring and re-assembly of the bracket to rib interface, reducing the cycle time of the operation.Ultimately, self-indexing components mean that the there is more flexibility as to what point in production the bracket can be attached to the rib. This allows for a reduction…
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Robot Accuracy: Offline Compensation (EU COMET Project)

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Nikon Metrology-Roger Holden, Paul Lightowler, Simon Andreou
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-2256
Published 2014-09-16 by SAE International in United States
The 30 month COMET project aims to overcome the challenges facing European manufacturing industries by developing innovative machining systems that are flexible, reliable and predictable with an average of 30% cost efficiency savings in comparison to machine tools. From a conceptual point of view, industrial robot technology could provide an excellent base for machining being both flexible and cost efficient. However, industrial robots lack absolute positioning accuracy, are unable to reject disturbances in terms of process forces and lack reliable programming and simulation tools to ensure right first time machining, once production commences. These three critical limitations currently prevent the use of robots in typical machining applications. The COMET project is co-funded by the European Commission as part of the European Economic Recovery Plan (EERP) adopted in 2008. The EERP proposes the launch of Public-Private Partnerships (PPP) in three sectors, one of them being Factories of the Future (FoF). Factories of the Future is a EUR 1.2 billion program in which the European Commission and industry are collaborating in research to support the development and…
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Applying Design for Assembly Principles in Computer Aided Design to Make Small Changes that Improve the Efficiency of Manual Aircraft Systems Installations

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Cranfield University-Helen Lockett, Sarah Fletcher, Nicolas Luquet
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-2266
Published 2014-09-16 by SAE International in United States
The installation of essential systems into aircraft wings involves numerous labour-intensive processes. Many human operators are required to perform complex manual tasks over long periods of time in very challenging physical positions due to the limited access and confined space. This level of human activity in poor ergonomic conditions directly impacts on speed and quality of production but also, in the longer term, can cause costly human resource problems from operators' cumulative development of musculoskeletal injuries. These problems are exacerbated in areas of the wing which house multiple systems components because the volume of manual work and number of operators is higher but the available space is reduced.To improve the efficiency of manual work processes which cannot yet be automated we therefore need to consider how we might redesign systems installations in the enclosed wing environment to better enable operator access and reduce production time.This paper describes a recent study that applied design for assembly and maintainability principles and CATIA v5 computer aided design software to identify small design changes for wing systems installation tasks.…
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Non Linear Finite Element Verification Approach for Marman Fitting in Space AIT Operations

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

MSC Software-Gabriele Santonico
Thales Alenia Space Italia SpA-Pietro Ladisa
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-2268
Published 2014-09-16 by SAE International in United States
The marman interface is widely used in space applications to fit the spacecrafts to the launch vehicle and it is the same interface that allows the integration, test and transport of the satellites (AIT). It is usually designed for launch loads with related flight design safety factors and margins, but this is not always compatible with the handling and transport environment. In particular some criticalities are evidenced during the transport of satellites, where they are mounted in the container in horizontal position therefore subjected to bending loads due to gravity and transport dynamic loads.The study deals with a finite element analysis approach in the calculation and verification of marman clamp bands used for spacecraft AIT operations.The paper describes the details of modeling of the clamp band parts, the involved spacecraft launch vehicle interface ring and the MGSE interface. All these parts are in contact and this configuration has been modeled adopting the most recent non linear contact analysis techniques.It is highlighted that the elastic behavior of the parts in contact are determinant for the definition…
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Adaptive Manufacturing System

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

PaR Systems, Inc.-James Cunov, Charles J. Habermann
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-2273
Published 2014-09-16 by SAE International in United States
The ever increasing use of composites for aircraft components presents opportunities for new ways to process these parts. There are myriad benefits for use of composites in achieving aircraft performance goals. However, composites come with unique challenges as well. Some of these challenges impact the ability to produce accurate parts. Traditionally, such parts have been trimmed only while clamped in dedicated rigid tools that secure the part in the nominal shape. This results in significant investment in tooling design, production, maintenance, storage and, handling. As an alternative, PaR has developed its Adaptive Manufacturing System that incorporates a Robotic Fixture and Precision Motion Machine with an Integrated Process Head. The Robotic Fixture allows the entire family of parts to be managed with one fixture that remains within the machine footprint. The fixture is programmed to command 38 individual robots to assume appropriate poses and end effector configurations to accommodate over 400 different parts in the family that range in length from 0.5 to 20 meters. Once the part(s) is loaded in the fixture, the system automatically…
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