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Jet Engine Fuel System Integration in Aircraft Environment - Methodology for Pressure Surge Simulation through Model-Based System Engineering

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Airbus Operations SAS-Matthieu Hutchison, Yannick Sommerer, Olivier Verseux, Eric Desmet
Siemens PLM Software-Grégoire Lenoble, Umberto Badiali
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-2135
Published 2014-09-16 by SAE International in United States
An Airbus methodology for the assessment of accurate fuel pressure surge at early program stages in the complete aircraft and engine environment based on joint collaboration with LMS Engineering is presented. The aim is to comfort the prediction of the fuel pressure spike generated by an engine shutdown in order to avoid late airframe fuel system redesign and secure the aircraft entry-into-service.
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Universal Interrogator Approach to Optical Sensors for Aircraft Applications

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Oxsensis, Ltd.-Ralf D. Pechstedt
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-2143
Published 2014-09-16 by SAE International in United States
Recently, there has been an increasing interest in Fiber Optic Sensors (FOS) for aircraft applications. Many of the FOS are based on different transducer mechanisms and hence, employ sensor-specific readout systems. However, for ease of maintenance and cost saving purposes, a ‘universal interrogator’ that can be used with at least a large sub-group of sensors is the preferred option for deployment in aircraft.Oxsensis has been developing sensors for harsh environments with focus on land based gas-turbine monitoring and combustion control and more recently is also looking at applying its technology to other areas such as Aerospace and Oil & Gas. In this paper we report on recent progress on the development of a number of FOS and how these could find application in aircraft with a ‘universal interrogator’ concept in mind.
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Roll and Pitch Produced During an Uneven Wing Deployment of a Hybrid Projectile

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

West Virginia Univ.-Jay Wilhelm, Joseph Close
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-2112
Published 2014-09-16 by SAE International in United States
Uneven wing deployment of a Hybrid Projectile (HP), an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) that is ballistically launched and then transforms, was investigated to determine the amount of roll and pitch produced during wing deployment. During testing of an HP prototype, it was noticed that sometimes the projectile began to slightly roll after the wings were deployed shortly after apogee. In this study, an analytical investigation was done to determine how the projectile body dynamics would be affected by the wings being deployed improperly. Improper and uneven wing deployment situations were investigated throughout the course of this study. The first analyzed was a single wing delaying to open. The second was if only one wing was to lock into a positive angle of incidence. The roll characteristics when both wings were deployed but only one was locked into an angle of incidence resulted in a steady state roll rate of 4.5 degrees per second. It is imperative to ensure that an HP wing deployment mechanism must be designed to deploy as evenly as possible.
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Hybrid-Electric, Heavy-Fuel Propulsion System for Small Unmanned Aircraft

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Mainstream Engineering Corp.-Kyle Merical, Troy Beechner, Paul Yelvington
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-2222
Published 2014-09-16 by SAE International in United States
A series hybrid-electric propulsion system has been designed for small rapid-response unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) with the goals of improving endurance, providing flexible and responsive electric propulsion, and enabling heavy fuel usage. The series hybrid architecture used a motor-driven propeller powered by a battery bank, which was recharged by an engine-driven generator, similar to other range-extended electric vehicles. The engine design focused on a custom, two-stroke, lean-burn, compression-ignition (CI), heavy-fuel engine, which was coupled with an integrated starter alternator (ISA) to provide electrical power. The heavy-fuel CI engine was designed for high power density, improved fuel efficiency, and compatibility with heavy fuels (e.g., diesel, JP-5, JP-8). Commercially available gasoline spark-ignition engines and heavy-fuel spark-ignition engines were also considered in the trade study. The series hybrid configuration allowed the engine to be mechanically decoupled from propeller, so that the engine could be operated at the load/speed condition for peak fuel-conversion efficiency. An energy-dense rechargeable battery pack was used to store energy and allow the UAS to operate with the engine shut off, which provided an engine-off…
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Five Strategies for Improving Aerospace Supply Chain Quality Management and Performance

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Plex Systems Inc.-Louis Columbus
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-2231
Published 2014-09-16 by SAE International in United States
Aerospace suppliers face the daunting task of constantly improving time-to-market, reducing cost of quality and turning compliance into a competitive advantage. Managing to these constraints while staying profitable is a challenge faced by the entire aerospace supply chain face today.The intent of this presentation is to share five lessons learned on how aerospace suppliers can optimize for these three constraints while growing their businesses. The first is electronically enabling traceability both within a multi-tier supply chains and throughout suppliers. Automating traceability at the shop floor improves quality management and accelerates compliance. Specific methodologies and metrics used to accomplish this will be provided. Second, lessons learned from implementing Manufacturing Execution Systems (MES) showing how shop floor visibility has a direct effect on supplier performance is illustrated with case studies and metrics. Third, lessons learned in making compliance pay by benchmarking performance to AS9100C, ISO9001, and ITAR standards is provided. Fourth, integrating engineering, program management, project management office, accounting and finance workflows together provides exceptional insight into the value of a project in real-time. Examples and metrics…
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A Method for the Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion Power System Architectures

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Univ. of Strathclyde-Jennifer C. Shaw, Patrick Norman, Stuart Galloway, Graeme Burt
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-2120
Published 2014-09-16 by SAE International in United States
Radical new electrically propelled aircraft are being considered to meet strict future performance goals. One concept design proposed is a Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion (TeDP) aircraft that utilises a number of electrically driven propulsors. Such concepts place a new and significant reliance on an aircraft's electrical system for safe and efficient flight. Accordingly, in addition to providing certainty that supply reliability targets are being met, a contingency analysis, evaluating the probability of component failure within the electrical network and the impact of that failure upon the available thrust must also be undertaken for architecture designs. Solutions that meet specified thrust requirements at a minimum associated weight are desired as these will likely achieve the greatest performance against the proposed emissions targets. This paper presents a Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) based design approach for the electrical system and thrust reliability analysis of TeDP aircraft architectures. This approach extends beyond the single failure rate provided by traditional FTA methods by profiling the reliability and thrust provision of each possible system configuration (i.e. following the failure of one or…
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Impact of Cable Bundles and Systems' Integration Rules Dedicated to Metallic Aircraft on the Electromagnetic Immunity of Systems in Composite Aircraft

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Bombardier Aerospace-Fidele Moupfouma, Amadou Ndoye, Mohsen Jalali, William Tse
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-2122
Published 2014-09-16 by SAE International in United States
Advanced commercial aircraft increasingly use more composite or hybrid (metal and composite) materials in structural elements and, despite technological challenges to be overcome, composites remain the future of the aviation industry. Composite and hybrid aircraft today are equipped with digital systems such as fly by wire for reliable operations no matter what the flying environment is. These systems are however very sensitive to electromagnetic energy.During flight, aircraft can face High Intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF), static electricity, or lightning. The coupling of any of these threats with airframe structure induces electromagnetic energy that can impair the operation of avionics and navigation systems.This paper focuses on systems susceptibility in composite aircraft and concludes that the same electromagnetic rules dedicated to all metal aircraft for systems and wiring integration cannot be applied directly as such for composite aircraft.
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Experimental Evaluation of Two Pitot Free Analytical Redundancy Techniques for the Estimation of the Airspeed of an UAV

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Lafayette College-Matthew Rhudy
Università degli Studi di Perugia-Mario Luca Fravolini, Silvia Cascianelli
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-2163
Published 2014-09-16 by SAE International in United States
A measurement device that is extremely important for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) guidance and control purposes is the airspeed sensor. As the parameters of feedback control laws are conventionally scheduled as a function of airspeed, an incorrect reading (e.g. due to a sensor fault) of the Pitot-static tube could induce an incorrect feedback control action, potentially leading to the loss of control of the UAV. The objective of this study is to establish the accuracy and reliability of the two airspeed estimation techniques for eventual use as the basis for real-time fault detection of anomalies occurring on the Pitot-static tube sensor. The first approach is based on an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) and the second approach is based on Least Squares (LS) modeling. The EKF technique utilizes nonlinear kinematic relations between GPS, Inertial Measurement Unit and Air Data System signals and has the advantage of independence from knowledge of the aircraft model. The LS method is based on explicit knowledge of the aircraft model and has the advantage of on-line computation of the airspeed estimate,…
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Composite AC-to-DC Power Converters for More Electric Architectures

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Honeywell International, Inc.-Evgeni Ganev, William Warr, Keming Chen
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-2207
Published 2014-09-16 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents a novel method and system for an electric power alternating-current (AC)-to-direct-current (DC) converter employing composite technology. The term composite entails utilization of more than one type of conversion operating in parallel. In addition, background information for the prior art, based on conventional autotransformer rectifier units (ATRUs), and active converters are discussed. The major requirements of AC-to-DC converters from both functional and protection perspectives are provided. The concept of the new approach is defined. Comparative analysis between the new and old methods is documented. The performance features and technical details of the system parameters with respect to AC-to-DC converter system requirements are presented and discussed. Analysis, simulation results, and test data are included. Finally, the advantages of this technology, which nearly doubles power density compared to the state-of-the-art, are summarized and a conclusion included.
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Demonstration of a Compact Hydrogen Fuel Cell Power System for UAS Propulsion

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Creare Inc.-Michael Izenson, Jerry Bieszczad, Patrick Magari
Protonex Technology Corp.-James Sisco
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-2223
Published 2014-09-16 by SAE International in United States
We have assembled and demonstrated a prototype power system that uses an innovative hydrogen generator to fuel an ultra-compact PEM fuel cell that is suitable for use in small unmanned aerial system (UAS) propulsion systems. The hydrogen generator uses thermal decomposition of ammonia borane (AB) to produce hydrogen from a very compact and lightweight package. An array of AB fuel pellets inside a low pressure container is activated sequentially to produce hydrogen on demand as it is consumed by the fuel cell. The fuel cell plant utilized in the power system prototype has been flown as part of several small UAS development programs and has logged hundreds of hours of flight time. The plant was designed specifically to be readily integrated with a range of hydrogen fueling subsystems and contains the balance of plant necessary to facilitate stand-alone operation. Based on results of these tests, we produced a conceptual design for a flight system. We project overall gravimetric and volumetric power densities of 350 W hr/L and 600 W hr/kg.
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