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Bird and Tyre Impact Analysis on Landing Gear

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Messier-Bugatti-Dowty-Claire Mercier
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-9002
Published 2013-12-20 by SAE International in United States
As part of the aircraft certification process, landing gear has to be certified against particular risks such as bird and tyre impact cases.According to international aviation regulations, it has to be demonstrated that the landing gear is designed to ensure the capability for continued safe flight and landing after bird impact or after tyre impact resulting from wheel or tyre failure.Structural parts such as the down-lock mechanism must be validated against these requirements since their structural integrity is essential to ensure landing gear down-locking for landing and subsequent on ground movement.Recently, MESSIER-BUGATTI-DOWTY has been involved in the development of explicit analysis in support of bird and tyre impact justification.A model of the down-lock mechanism has been developed and a full scale test has been set up in order to demonstrate the validity of the analysis.Two extensive test campaigns have been performed considering bird and tyre impact cases using highly instrumented components to record strains and displacements on impacted parts.Based on a comparison to the test results, the modelling of bird and tyre projectiles has been…
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Detailed Analysis of Variables Affecting Wing Kinematics of Bat Flight

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Fachhochschule Aachen-Frank Janser, Eugen Neu
Vellore Institute of Technology-Gaurav Bindal, Sparsh Sharma
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-9003
Published 2013-12-20 by SAE International in United States
Body motions of flying animals can be very complex, especially when the body parts are greatly flexible and they interact with the surrounding fluid. The wing kinematics of an animal flight is governed by a large number of variables and thus the measurement of complete flapping flight is not so simple, making it very complex to understand the contribution of each parameter to the performance and hence, to decide the important parameters for constructing the kinematic model of a bat is nearly impossible. In this paper, the influence of each parameter is uncovered and the variables that a specified reconstruction of bat flight should include in order to maximally reconstruct actual dimensional complexity, have been presented in detail. The effects of the different kinematic parameters on the lift coefficient are being resulted. The computation analysis of the lift coefficient for different camber thicknesses and various wing areas is done by unsteady thin airfoil theory and vortex lattice method, respectively.
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High Accuracy Articulated Robots with CNC Control Systems

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Electroimpact Inc.-Bradley Saund, Russell DeVlieg
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-2292
Published 2013-09-17 by SAE International in United States
A robotic arm manipulator is often an appealing method to position drills, bolt inserters, automated fiber placement heads, or other end effectors. In a standard robot the flexibility of the cantilevered arm as well as backlash in the drive system lead to large positioning errors. Previous work has greatly reduced this error through the use of secondary scales and a mathematical model of the robot deflection running on a CNC controller. Further research improved upon this model by accounting for linear deformation of each robot link regardless of position. The parameters describing these deformations are determined through a calibration routine and then used in real time to guide the end effector accurately to any reachable pose. In practice this method has been used to achieve total on-part positioning accuracy of better than +/− 0.25mm.
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Rivet and Bolt Injector with Bomb Bay Ejection Doors

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Electroimpact Inc.-Cosmos Krejci
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-2151
Published 2013-09-17 by SAE International in United States
Electroimpact's newest riveting machine features a track-style injector with Bomb Bay Ejection Doors. The Bomb Bay Ejection Doors are a robust way to eject fasteners from track style injector. Track style injectors are commonly used by Electroimpact and others in the industry. Using the Bomb Bay Doors for fastener ejection consists of opening the tracks allowing very solid clearing of an injector when ejecting a fastener translating to a more reliable fastener delivery system. Examples of when fastener ejection is needed are when a fastener is sent backwards, when there are two in the tube, or when a machine operator stops or resets the machine during a fastening cycle. This method allows fasteners to be cleared in nearly every situation when ejecting a fastener is required. Additional feature of Electroimpact's new injection system is integrated anvil tool change. Anvils with fingers are parked on each Injector and an indexing system automatically changes tools for different fastener diameter. Fundamentally, this track-style Injector has only one moving part, the Pusher, used in every fastening cycle. With the…
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Multi-Axis Serially Redundant, Single Channel, Multi-Path FBW Flight Control System

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Bombardier Aerospace-Shu Lin, Tim Smith, Pierre De Serres
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-2257
Published 2013-09-17 by SAE International in United States
A multi-axis serially redundant, single channel, multi-path FBW (FBW) control system comprising: serially redundant flight control computers in a single channel where only one “primary” flight control computer is active and controlling at any given time; a matrix of parallel flight control surface controllers including stabilizer motor control units (SMCU) and actuator electronics control modules (AECM) define multiple control paths within the single channel, each implemented with dissimilar hardware and which each control the movement of a distributed set of flight control surfaces on the aircraft in response to flight control surface commands from the primary flight control computer, and a set of (pilot and co-pilot) controls and aircraft surface/reference/navigation sensors and systems which provide input to a primary flight control computer and are used to generate the flight control surface commands in accordance with the control law algorithms implemented in the flight control computers.
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Improvement of Planning and Tracking of Technology Maturity Development with Focus on Manufacturing Requirements

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Airbus UK-Mark Summers
University of Nottingham-Verena Cavalheiro, Svetan Ratchev
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-2261
Published 2013-09-17 by SAE International in United States
This paper details the development of a user-friendly computerised tool created to evaluate the Manufacturing Readiness Levels (MRL) of an emerging technology. The main benefits achieved are to manage technology development planning and tracking, make visually clear and standardised analysis, and improve team communication. The new approach is applied to the Technology Readiness Levels (TRL), currently used by Airbus Research & Technology (R&T) UK.The main focus is on the improvement of the analysis criteria. The first phase of the study was to interpret the manufacturing criteria used by Airbus at TRL 4, including a brief benchmarking review of similar practices in industry and other Airbus' project management tools. All information gathered contributed to the creation of a complete set of criteria.In the second phase, a questionnaire format, using the new set of criteria, was used through a user-friendly computer tool, which was programmed to quantify and plot the maturity of a technology into tracking graphs. The graphs presented the status of a technology against a respective ‘target’ for completion, providing a visual assessment of the…
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Processing CSeries Aircraft Panels

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Bombardier Aerospace-Daniel Grenier
GEMCOR-Eric Barton, Thomas Rummell
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-2149
Published 2013-09-17 by SAE International in United States
Bombardier faced new manufacturing process challenges drilling and fastening CSeries* aircraft panels with multi-material stacks of composite (CFRP), titanium and aluminum in which Gemcor responded with a unique, flexible CNC Drivmatic® automatic fastening system, now in production at Bombardier. This joint technical paper is presented by Bombardier, expounding on manufacturing process challenges with the C Series aircraft design requirements and Gemcor presenting a unique solution to automatically fasten CFRP aft fuselage panels and aluminum lithium (Al Li) cockpit panels with the same CNC Drivmatic® system. After installation and preliminary acceptance at Bombardier, the CNC system was further enhanced to automatically fasten the carbon fiber pressure bulkhead dome assembly.
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One Click Build Environment and Tool Chain for Real Time Safety Critical Aerospace Embedded System

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

MAHLE Powertrain LLC-Tejas Chhaya, Dan Evans, David Dempsey, Jason Powers
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-2259
Published 2013-09-17 by SAE International in United States
“Embedded Software Build” is the process of taking all source code files that are part of the embedded system and compiling them into build artifacts, such as executables or binaries for the target embedded hardware. In the case of embedded systems, it includes low level software for a specific embedded hardware device, the application software and the associated application data. To further complicate this, low level software also known as firmware or middleware layers are often hand-coded while the application layer is auto-coded. To ensure build reproducibility, accurately predict build results and achieve error-free embedded software builds both in a lab environment and in the field, embedded software builds are required to be automated. At the very initial stage of the project, we realized that the automation of the Embedded Software Build is highly imperative and extremely crucial, as we're dealing with a Real Time - Safety Critical - Aerospace Embedded System. In this paper, we will discuss the different types of software products that need to be integrated together prior to the build, and…
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1 Adaptive Flutter Suppression Control Strategy for Highly Flexible Structure

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Clarkson University-Piergiovanni Marzocca
Politecnico di Torino-Mario Cassaro, Manuela Battipede, Enrico Cestino
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-2263
Published 2013-09-17 by SAE International in United States
The aim of this work is to apply an innovative adaptive ℒ1 techniques to control flutter phenomena affecting highly flexible wings and to evaluate the efficiency of this control algorithm and architecture by performing the following tasks: i) adaptation and analysis of an existing simplified nonlinear plunging/pitching 2D aeroelastic model accounting for structural nonlinearities and a quasi-steady aerodynamics capable of describing flutter and post-flutter limit cycle oscillations, ii) implement the ℒ1 adaptive control on the developed aeroelastic system to perform initial control testing and evaluate the sensitivity to system parameters, and iii) perform model validation and calibration by comparing the performance of the proposed control strategy with an adaptive back-stepping algorithm. The effectiveness and robustness of the ℒ1 adaptive control in flutter and post-flutter suppression is demonstrated. Results and discussion will follow with pertinent conclusions and future outlooks.
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Axial and Orbital Drilling of Thick Stacks for New Aircraft Assembly Process

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Mapal Dr Kress KG-Abdelatif Atarsia
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-2226
Published 2013-09-17 by SAE International in United States
This technical paper deals with design and manufacture of axial and orbital cutters for drilling large diameters holes in Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics (CFRP) / Titanium (TA6V) thick stack by means of an Automated Drilling Unit fixed on a drilling template. Creating tools that drill such stacked holes in a single operation is particularly difficult. The common strategies for tool designs designated to cutting composites stacked with metals as titanium include uncoated carbide, tools with a diamond coating applied by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). It is also question of what kind of drilling process should we use to achieve larger holes in minimum time. Therefore, axial drilling process with pilot, drill and ream steps find a competitor drilling process named orbital drilling which can achieve both operations in one step allowing then, burrless, free delamination, small and easy removable chips all with one tool being able to achieve different hole sizes. The present study compares the quality of drilled holes in term of both materials hole diameters, exit burr and cycle time which become a…
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