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Bird and Tyre Impact Analysis on Landing Gear

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Messier-Bugatti-Dowty-Claire Mercier
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-9002
Published 2013-12-20 by SAE International in United States
As part of the aircraft certification process, landing gear has to be certified against particular risks such as bird and tyre impact cases.According to international aviation regulations, it has to be demonstrated that the landing gear is designed to ensure the capability for continued safe flight and landing after bird impact or after tyre impact resulting from wheel or tyre failure.Structural parts such as the down-lock mechanism must be validated against these requirements since their structural integrity is essential to ensure landing gear down-locking for landing and subsequent on ground movement.Recently, MESSIER-BUGATTI-DOWTY has been involved in the development of explicit analysis in support of bird and tyre impact justification.A model of the down-lock mechanism has been developed and a full scale test has been set up in order to demonstrate the validity of the analysis.Two extensive test campaigns have been performed considering bird and tyre impact cases using highly instrumented components to record strains and displacements on impacted parts.Based on a comparison to the test results, the modelling of bird and tyre projectiles has been…
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Detailed Analysis of Variables Affecting Wing Kinematics of Bat Flight

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Fachhochschule Aachen-Frank Janser, Eugen Neu
Vellore Institute of Technology-Gaurav Bindal, Sparsh Sharma
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-9003
Published 2013-12-20 by SAE International in United States
Body motions of flying animals can be very complex, especially when the body parts are greatly flexible and they interact with the surrounding fluid. The wing kinematics of an animal flight is governed by a large number of variables and thus the measurement of complete flapping flight is not so simple, making it very complex to understand the contribution of each parameter to the performance and hence, to decide the important parameters for constructing the kinematic model of a bat is nearly impossible. In this paper, the influence of each parameter is uncovered and the variables that a specified reconstruction of bat flight should include in order to maximally reconstruct actual dimensional complexity, have been presented in detail. The effects of the different kinematic parameters on the lift coefficient are being resulted. The computation analysis of the lift coefficient for different camber thicknesses and various wing areas is done by unsteady thin airfoil theory and vortex lattice method, respectively.
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High Accuracy Articulated Robots with CNC Control Systems

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Electroimpact Inc.-Bradley Saund, Russell DeVlieg
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-2292
Published 2013-09-17 by SAE International in United States
A robotic arm manipulator is often an appealing method to position drills, bolt inserters, automated fiber placement heads, or other end effectors. In a standard robot the flexibility of the cantilevered arm as well as backlash in the drive system lead to large positioning errors. Previous work has greatly reduced this error through the use of secondary scales and a mathematical model of the robot deflection running on a CNC controller. Further research improved upon this model by accounting for linear deformation of each robot link regardless of position. The parameters describing these deformations are determined through a calibration routine and then used in real time to guide the end effector accurately to any reachable pose. In practice this method has been used to achieve total on-part positioning accuracy of better than +/− 0.25mm.
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Rivet and Bolt Injector with Bomb Bay Ejection Doors

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Electroimpact Inc.-Cosmos Krejci
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-2151
Published 2013-09-17 by SAE International in United States
Electroimpact's newest riveting machine features a track-style injector with Bomb Bay Ejection Doors. The Bomb Bay Ejection Doors are a robust way to eject fasteners from track style injector. Track style injectors are commonly used by Electroimpact and others in the industry. Using the Bomb Bay Doors for fastener ejection consists of opening the tracks allowing very solid clearing of an injector when ejecting a fastener translating to a more reliable fastener delivery system. Examples of when fastener ejection is needed are when a fastener is sent backwards, when there are two in the tube, or when a machine operator stops or resets the machine during a fastening cycle. This method allows fasteners to be cleared in nearly every situation when ejecting a fastener is required. Additional feature of Electroimpact's new injection system is integrated anvil tool change. Anvils with fingers are parked on each Injector and an indexing system automatically changes tools for different fastener diameter. Fundamentally, this track-style Injector has only one moving part, the Pusher, used in every fastening cycle. With the…
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A Novel Approach for Technology Development: A Success Story

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Bombardier Aerospace-Olivier Pahud, Didier Hoste
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-2330
Published 2013-09-17 by SAE International in United States
The composites development team at Bombardier Aerospace has pushed the Integrated Product Development Team to a new level. The team has been created outside the business priorities and was partially funded by a provincial government initiative to create a greener aircraft.A dedicated R&D team can reduce the gap between the different disciplines by encouraging them to work as one entity and rapidly develop high Technology Readiness Level (TRL) and high Manufacturing Readiness Level (MRL) solutions. Additionally, the interactions between the groups create a harmonization of the development philosophy and a sharing of the building block approach. This leads to a significant cost and lead time reduction in the coupon, element and detail testing.The constitution of the team also has a great impact on the level of expertise and the flexibility to adjust to new demands. The team has built through the years an entire and complete external partner network that helps the team in specific subject matters.Knowledge management within the team, technology development and sharing become critical aspects as the projects grow. To ensure that…
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Multi-Axis Serially Redundant, Single Channel, Multi-Path FBW Flight Control System

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Bombardier Aerospace-Shu Lin, Tim Smith, Pierre De Serres
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-2257
Published 2013-09-17 by SAE International in United States
A multi-axis serially redundant, single channel, multi-path FBW (FBW) control system comprising: serially redundant flight control computers in a single channel where only one “primary” flight control computer is active and controlling at any given time; a matrix of parallel flight control surface controllers including stabilizer motor control units (SMCU) and actuator electronics control modules (AECM) define multiple control paths within the single channel, each implemented with dissimilar hardware and which each control the movement of a distributed set of flight control surfaces on the aircraft in response to flight control surface commands from the primary flight control computer, and a set of (pilot and co-pilot) controls and aircraft surface/reference/navigation sensors and systems which provide input to a primary flight control computer and are used to generate the flight control surface commands in accordance with the control law algorithms implemented in the flight control computers.
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Utilizing Team Productivity Models in the Selection of Space Exploration Teams

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

University of Central Florida-Angelo C. Conner, Luis Rabelo
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-2082
Published 2013-09-17 by SAE International in United States
The term “productivity” all too often has becomes a buzz-word, ultimately diminishing its perceived importance. However, productivity is the major concern of any team, and therefore must be defined to gain an appropriate understanding of how a system is actually working. Here, productivity means the level of contribution to the throughput of a system such as defined in the Theory of Constraints. In the field of space exploration, the throughput is the number of milestones of the mission accomplished as well as the potential survival during extreme events (due to failures or other unplanned events).For a time tasks were accomplished by expert individuals (e.g., an astronaut), but recently team structures have become the norm. It is clear that with increased mission complexity, “no single entity can have complete knowledge of or the abilities to handle all matters” [10]. Understanding now that teamwork is important, beneficial, and becoming the standard, a team profile must be developed. This profile will include team member selecting factors (e.g., general intelligence), team organization, and team management.This paper outlines our initial…
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Improvement of Planning and Tracking of Technology Maturity Development with Focus on Manufacturing Requirements

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Airbus UK-Mark Summers
University of Nottingham-Verena Cavalheiro, Svetan Ratchev
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-2261
Published 2013-09-17 by SAE International in United States
This paper details the development of a user-friendly computerised tool created to evaluate the Manufacturing Readiness Levels (MRL) of an emerging technology. The main benefits achieved are to manage technology development planning and tracking, make visually clear and standardised analysis, and improve team communication. The new approach is applied to the Technology Readiness Levels (TRL), currently used by Airbus Research & Technology (R&T) UK.The main focus is on the improvement of the analysis criteria. The first phase of the study was to interpret the manufacturing criteria used by Airbus at TRL 4, including a brief benchmarking review of similar practices in industry and other Airbus' project management tools. All information gathered contributed to the creation of a complete set of criteria.In the second phase, a questionnaire format, using the new set of criteria, was used through a user-friendly computer tool, which was programmed to quantify and plot the maturity of a technology into tracking graphs. The graphs presented the status of a technology against a respective ‘target’ for completion, providing a visual assessment of the…
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Processing CSeries Aircraft Panels

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Bombardier Aerospace-Daniel Grenier
GEMCOR-Eric Barton, Thomas Rummell
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-2149
Published 2013-09-17 by SAE International in United States
Bombardier faced new manufacturing process challenges drilling and fastening CSeries* aircraft panels with multi-material stacks of composite (CFRP), titanium and aluminum in which Gemcor responded with a unique, flexible CNC Drivmatic® automatic fastening system, now in production at Bombardier. This joint technical paper is presented by Bombardier, expounding on manufacturing process challenges with the C Series aircraft design requirements and Gemcor presenting a unique solution to automatically fasten CFRP aft fuselage panels and aluminum lithium (Al Li) cockpit panels with the same CNC Drivmatic® system. After installation and preliminary acceptance at Bombardier, the CNC system was further enhanced to automatically fasten the carbon fiber pressure bulkhead dome assembly.
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Process Change: Redesign of Composite Parts for Structural Integrity

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Bombardier Aerospace-Jean-Philippe Lachance, Jean-Evrard Brunel
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-2328
Published 2013-09-17 by SAE International in United States
The objective of this document is to present the methodology used to verify the structural integrity of a redesigned composite part. While shifting the manufacturing process of a composite part from pre-impregnated to a liquid resin injection process, the Composites Development team at Bombardier Aerospace had to redesign the component to a new set of design allowables. The Integrated Product Development Team (IPDT) was able to quickly provide a turnkey solution that assessed three aspects of airframe engineering: Design, Materials & Processes (M&P) and Stress. The focus of this paper will be the stress substantiation process led by the Stress Engineers. It will also bring up the synergies with M&P that are unique to the IPDT approach.The stress substantiation process required three distinct checks be confirmed. These were that the global behavior of the surrounding structure remained unaffected, that all local failure modes still exhibited positive margins of safety, and finally to organize detail level testing to provide complete substantiation for the certification authorities.The paper also exposes how this method was used successfully on components…
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