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Incorporating Atmospheric Radiation Effects Analysis into the System Design Process

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Honeywell-Laura Dominik
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-2131
Published 2012-10-22 by SAE International in United States
Natural atmospheric radiation effects have been recognized in recent years as key safety and reliability concerns for avionics systems. Atmospheric radiation may cause Single Event Effects (SEE) in electronics. The resulting Single Event Effects can cause various fault conditions, including hazardous misleading information and system effects in avionics equipment. As technology trends continue to achieve higher densities and lower voltages, semiconductor devices are becoming more susceptible to atmospheric radiation effects. To ensure a system meets all its safety and reliability requirements, SEE induced upsets and potential system failures need to be considered.The purpose of this paper is to describe a process to incorporate the SEE analysis into the development like-cycle. Background on the atmospheric radiation phenomenon and the resulting single event effects, including single event upset (SEU) and latch up conditions is provided. The approach to assess radiation effects susceptibility of components and the evaluation of SEE impacts on system functionality is described. The process includes a radiation analysis plan, parts assessment, radiation effects susceptibility evaluation, and a radiation effects report.
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Integrating System and Software Engineering Activities for Integrated Modular Avionics Applications

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

EADS Eurocopter-Frederic Romeas, Olivier TOURILLION
Esterel Technologies-Thierry LeSergent
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-2139
Published 2012-10-22 by SAE International in United States
Avionics systems are complex systems that integrate hardware, communication media, have many interactions with other subsystems, within or outside of the aircraft, and for the system discussed in this presentation, integrate software that must be developed according to DO-178B guidelines. System engineering and software engineering are two engineering disciplines that are historically handled by teams with different cultures, and when their engineering processes are supported by tools, use different and incompatible tools. This often leads to a difficult collaboration, with at some point, redundant information and inconsistencies.This presentation introduces a solution, based on the SysML standard for system modeling, and on the SCADE Suite product from Esterel Technologies for the development of DO-178B certified software components. This solution, named SCADE System, allows system and software engineers to work with the right formalism for their respective domains while improving cooperation due to a unified tool framework for System and Software models, the same requirements traceability and documentation generation tools, and a synchronization mechanism for the data that are at the frontier between the two engineering domains.This…
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Health Assessment of Liquid Cooling System in Aircrafts: Data Visualization, Reduction, Clustering, and Classification

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Hamilton Sundstrand-Rhonda Walthall, Paul DOrlando
University of Connecticut-Shalabh Gupta
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-2106
Published 2012-10-22 by SAE International in United States
This paper addresses the issues of data reduction, visualization, clustering and classification for fault diagnosis and prognosis of the Liquid Cooling System (LCS) in an aircraft. LCS is a cooling system that consists of a left and a right loop, where each loop is composed of a variety of components including a heat exchanger, source control units, a compressor, and a pump. The LCS data and the fault correlation analysis used in the paper are provided by Hamilton Sundstrand (HS) - A United Technologies Company (UTC). This data set includes a variety of sensor measurements for system parameters including temperatures and pressures of different components, along with liquid levels and valve positions of the pumps and controllers. A graphical user interface (GUI) is developed in Matlab that facilitates extensive plotting of the parameters versus each other, and/or time to observe the trends in the data. The parameters that reflect interesting information are selected by observing the correlations between different parameters. The data are analyzed using the wavelet transform to highlight the interclass separation and subdue…
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Fiber Optic Multi Channel Expanded Beam Connector

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

TE Connectivity, AD&M-Soren Grinderslev
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-2108
Published 2012-10-22 by SAE International in United States
To compliment the development of the single channel small form factor size 16 optical Expanded Beam (EB) pin and socket contacts, we have explored the possibility of designing a multi-fiber high density lensed termini (HDLT). This paper describes the design efforts of an insert containing two ferrules accommodating a total of 24 fibers and mountable into a size 8 Quadrax cavity of a 38999 style connector. To take advantage of the expanded beam concept and to keep the design cost effective, the ferrules are molded with a 12 fiber v-groove array positioned behind integral lenses. Originally, the ferrules were designed for the relative benign environment of datacom applications. Therefore, in order to accommodate the broader operational environment of arospace applications which includes mechanical vibration, thermal cycling and high humidity exposure a suitable epoxy had to be identified. Design details, proposed solution, and initial test results are discussed.
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Efficient Certification of Highly Integrated and Complex Aircraft Systems, Such as Integrated Modular Avionics

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Worldwide Certification Services-Marty Gasiorowski
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-2143
Published 2012-10-22 by SAE International in United States
There are several relatively new certification standards related to Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA) certification that have recently been invoked by the certification authorities. These standards include SAE ARP-4754A, Guidelines for Development of Civil Aircraft and Systems, RTCA DO-297, Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA) Development Guidance and Certification Considerations, and RTCA DO-178C, Software Considerations in Airborne Systems and Equipment Certification. RTCA DO-254, Design Assurance Guidance for Airborne Electronic Hardware, and TSO C153, Integrated Modular Avionics Hardware Elements, are also applicable to IMA certification. As many of these standards have only recently been invoked in Advisory Circulars by the Certification Authorities, the industry has little experience in complying with them individually, and even less experience complying with them collectively. With the current trend of increased integration, and the application of IMA architectures to systems that are not avionics, such as electric power, fly-by-wire, and air management, companies that were not previously obligated to consider “avionics” standards will be required to define new processes for their engineering organizations. Further, FAA and EASA have different positions on how these standards…
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Touchscreen Display Enhancements for Flight Deck Applications

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Esterline Control Systems-Tim Robinson, Greg Grabski, Koji Yugawa, Jay Jeffers, John Green, Steve Humphrey
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-2116
Published 2012-10-22 by SAE International in United States
Touchscreen displays are of growing interest to the aerospace community and are having a significant impact on how pilots interact with avionics. With the right hardware construction and software algorithm, a touchscreen display can manage and present information and controls to the pilot in an intuitive manner. This paper describes a hardware touchscreen rationale, primarily focusing on the lighting performance of a touchscreen display modified for flight deck applications. Specifically, we describe a durable glass-on-film-on-glass resistive touchscreen display with improved high ambient contrast ratio (HACR) properties and a low friction, lipophobic textured front-surface that disrupts the distinctiveness of reflective images.
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Concept for an Avionics Multi Touch Flight Deck

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Barco NV-Gert Stuyven
Delft University of Technology-Herman Damveld, Clark Borst
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-2120
Published 2012-10-22 by SAE International in United States
Touch screen technology has experienced significant improvements recently, evolving to several solutions that are rugged enough to be introduced into the cockpit. A practical setup has been worked out consisting of four large PFD/MFD screens and two Touch Screen Control Units (TSCU's) which are positioned at the location of the classic CDU in the cockpit. All display surfaces have multi-touch capability. Apart from serving as a technology demonstrator, the setup will be used as a scientific test bed.The goal of this study is to identify the benefits and optimize the usage of multi-touch screens in a cockpit environment. The focus is on creating a more intuitive operation and increasing the situation awareness. To investigate and demonstrate this, dedicated touch screen gestures were implemented and specialized flight deck applications were developed that facilitate direct manipulation of the flight plan. The PFD application is augmented with a Synthetic Vision System and integrates the tunnel-in-the-sky concept. As all screens are interconnected, collaboration between them is possible thanks to the touch screen interface.In addition, the setup will be used…
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UAS Weaponization Technology Pathfinder Program: AMPM UTP

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Army AMRDEC System Simulation Dir-Steve Low
General Dynamics Corp-Douglas Gregory
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-2122
Published 2012-10-22 by SAE International in United States
Under AMRDEC's Aviation Multi-Platform Munition Program (AMPM) Science and Technology Program, a “Shadow Hawk” munition (developed by Lockheed Martin Missiles and Fire Control) was commanded and released using AMRDEC's Universal Test Pod (UTP) and successfully impacted the designated ground target. The UTP program pioneered usage of OSD Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Control Segment (UCS) Architecture Mission Effects Sub-domain and standardized STANAG 4586 weapon control messages that formed the basis of OSD's Data Link IP (draft). The UTP employed the Universal Armaments Interface (UAI) implemented in the UTP stores management system, which provides a developmental universal, open-architecture weapon interface.This was the first demonstration of a precision-guided weapon released from a RQ-7B Shadow UAS. It also marks the first-time that UAI protocol, Army/OSD standard weapon data link messages and a weapon control application built to the UCS Architecture Model were used in commanding a small precision-guided weapon from a UAS platform.AMRDEC's Universal Test Pod, developed in partnership with “Dynetics Incorporated”, “General Dynamics - Advanced Information Systems”, and “Torch Technologies Incorporated”, demonstrates the universal, open-standard attributes of the…
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Generic Architecture for a Self-Powered Smart Sensor Interface in Avionic Application

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Polytechnique Montreal-Saeid Hashemi
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-2126
Published 2012-10-22 by SAE International in United States
In this paper, we present a universal architecture for a reliable self-powered Smart Sensor Interface (SSI) in avionic applications. The SSI module consists of data acquisition and signal excitation paths. The power recovery unit harvests energy from data field bus to power up the SSI module entirely. Using integrated CMOS technologies, the interface is flexible and configurable to be integrated with and fully controlled by Transducer Interface Module (TIM) introduced in IEEE1451 standard. Employing data converters within the signal paths makes the SSI well suited for full digital control over specifications of the excitation signal and data processing algorithms. The interface can be used along with various types of position sensors including legacy R/LVDT, MEMS-based and optical ones. The analog parts of the SSI are implemented using IBM 0.13 μm CMOS process while its digital modules are realized in FPGAs. The Power Conversion Chain (PCC) of the SSI is also presented and its complex components are modeled in Verilog-A using a top-down modeling approach. The models make it possible to study over power transfer and…
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Fiber Optic Expanded Beam Size 16 Termini

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

TE Connectivity-Soren Grinderslev
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-2128
Published 2012-10-22 by SAE International in United States
For most data and telecom fiber optic applications the physical contact (PC) concept is preferred for all indoor and even some outdoor applications. But when these connectors are subjected to a harsh environment, the performance of standard PC connectors has proven unreliable in many applications due to their sensitivity to contamination. The subject for this paper is the design of a small form factor expanded beam (EB) fiber optic contact pair suited for operation in a challenging environment. The contacts conform to the dimensional envelope of MIL-PRF-29504/4/5D and employ a separable lens unit design which provides the option for field-installable terminations. The EB concept typically exhibits a higher loss than the PC connection, but preliminary results of the new design indicate that the size 16 termini pair using 1.25mm lenses and ferrules yields a very good loss performance.
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