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Applications of ARINC 818 in Avionics Video Systems

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Great River Technology-Tim Keller, Jon Alexander
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-3141
Published 2009-11-10 by SAE International in United States
ARINC 818, titled Avionics Digital Video Bus (ADVB), is a video protocol standard for high-bandwidth, low-latency, critical video systems. Since its introduction three years ago, many commercial and military aerospace programs have adopted the protocol, including the 787, A400M, and the A350XWB. A description of the protocol and its technical benefits is provided followed by an overview of how it is used in various systems, such as: infrared and optical sensors, map/chart systems, synthetic vision, HUDs, MFDs, video concentrators, and other subsystems. Future uses of the protocol are also explored.
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Experimental Techniques of Measuring Vibratory Force for Aircraft Wings

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

University of Louisiana at Lafayette-Xueguang Bi, Yucheng Liu
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-3283
Published 2009-11-10 by SAE International in United States
The authors measured the vibratory forces acting on an airfoil model by performing a ground vibration test (GVT). The airfoil model was manufactured using rapid prototyping. In the experiments, the airfoil model's structural response was also recorded and described. This paper detailedly introduces the entire experiment process and the obtained experimental data agreed well to the actual values.
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Self-Configuring Hybrid Duct System and Attachment Technologies for Environmental Control Systems

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

The Boeing Company-Jayant D. Patel, Vitor M. Amorim
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-3277
Published 2009-11-10 by SAE International in United States
Environmental Control Systems (ECS) ducts on airplanes are primarily fabricated from aluminum or thermoset composites, depending on temperature and pressure requirements. It is imperative to fabricate lightweight, cost effective, durable, and repairable systems with minimal tooling. It is also important that the duct systems are easy to assemble even with alignment issues resulting from structural variations, tolerance accumulation, variation from thermal expansion of different materials, and inherent duct stiffness. These requirements create an opportunity and need for a technology that can address all of these issues, while increasing performance at the same time.This report provides a background on current ECS ducting systems. It also introduces a new, innovative duct system technology and self-torquing attachment system for use in high temperature and pressure systems with the following characteristics: less than half the weight of current systems it is replacing, cost effective, environmentally friendly, superior durability, self-compensating (i.e. flexibility to conform to specific assembly configurations and accommodates factors such as structural variability and expansion), and inherent vibration and noise dampening capabilities.This new technology meets the stringent FAA…
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The Effect of Machining–Induced Micro Texture on Lightning Current Arcing between Fasteners and Composite Structure

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Alcoa New Product Development-Hasim Mulazimoglu, Luke Haylock
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-3240
Published 2009-11-10 by SAE International in United States
Drilling fastener holes in composite is much more difficult than in aluminum or other metallic materials since individual carbon fibers fracture at irregular angles resulting in numerous microscopic voids. These voids can trap excess sealant inhibiting the intimate electrical contact between the fastener and the composite structure. As the cutting tool wears there is an increase of surface chipping and an increase in the amount of uncut fibers or resin. This condition is referred to as machining–induced micro texture. Machining–induced micro texture has been shown to be associated with the presence of arcing between the fastener and the composite structure during lightning strike tests.Lightning protection of composite structure is more complex due to the intrinsic high resistance of carbon fibers and epoxy, the multi-layer construction and the anisotropic nature of the structure. The inherent conductivity of metallic fasteners and the large number of fasteners used in aircraft construction combine to create a condition of a high probability of lightning attachment to fasteners. Intimate contact between bare metallic fastener and the hole in the composite structure…
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Testing of 300 Series Stainless Steel Tubing for Aerospace Applications

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Plymouth Tube Company-Mel Chapman
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-3257
Published 2009-11-10 by SAE International in United States
The applicability, interpretation, and implementation of the testing requirements, in various aerospace and military tubing material specifications have caused confusion across the tubing industry. Despite the release of AMS specifications, procurement entities continue to purchase material produced to the older and often cancelled Mil-T specifications. In addition to mechanical properties, these specifications cover requirements including composition, grain size, heat treating, passivation, pressure testing, formability, non-destructive testing, and sampling frequency. Confusion may result for tubing producers who also supply commercial grade tubing having similar mechanical properties aerospace tubing. Ultimately it is the responsibility of the tubing manufacturer to understand the risks involved in meeting the requirements of the aerospace material specifications, both Military and AMS.
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Improved Accuracy of Unguided Articulated Robots

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Electroimpact, Inc.-Russell DeVlieg
Northrop Grumman Co.-Todd Szallay
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-3108
Published 2009-11-10 by SAE International in United States
The effectiveness of serial link articulated robots in aerospace drilling and fastening is largely limited by positional accuracy. Unguided production robotic systems are practically limited to +/-0.5mm, whereas the majority of aerospace applications call for tolerances in the +/-0.25mm range. The precision with which holes are placed on an aircraft structure is affected by two main criteria; the volumetric accuracy of the positioner, and how the system is affected when an external load is applied. Production use and testing of off-the-shelf robots has highlighted the major contributor to reduced stiffness and accuracy as being error ahead of the joint position feedback such as backlash and belt stretch. These factors affect the omni-directional repeatability, thus limiting accuracy, and also contribute to deflection of the tool point when process forces are applied. Drawing from common axis configuration in machine tool design, an industrial robot integrated with secondary encoders yields tighter control on axis position and increases system rigidity, thus creating a more repeatable system and, in turn, a system than can be compensated to high accuracies.
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Improving the Supply Chain by Sharing Intelligent Technical Data Packages

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Renaissance Services Inc.-Dan Z. Sokol
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-3137
Published 2009-11-10 by SAE International in United States
For many suppliers in the aerospace value chain, business commences when the customer shares the Technical Data Package (TDP) that defines the detailed requirements for a specific part. To convert the customer TDP into the necessary internal documentation, suppliers must expend large amounts of effort. This generally involves passing along copies of the TDP to each functional discipline, which not only results in redundant and laborious work, but it introduces technical risk.There are now software tools available that enable an intelligent TDP that provides more value than just sharing a 3D CAD model. These tools electronically organize and integrate all elements of the TDP independent of the PLM software in use. The application of the intelligent TDP has enabled a 30% reduction in supply chain inefficiencies.
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Solution for Automated Drilling and Lockbolt Installation in Carbon Fiber Structures

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

BRÖTJE-Automation GmbH-Konrad Schwarze, Torsten Mehlenhoff
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-3214
Published 2009-11-10 by SAE International in United States
Manual drilling and Lockbolt installation in carbon fiber structures is a labor intensive process. To reduce man hour requirements while concurrently improving throughput and process quality levels BROETJE-Automation developed a gantry positioning system with high performance multi-function end effectors for this application.This paper presents a unique solution featuring fully automated drilling and Lockbolt installation (inclusive of automated collar installation) for the vertical tail plane (vertical stabilizer) of large commercial aircraft. A flexible and reconfigurable assembly jig facilitates high access of the end effectors and increases the equipment efficiency. The described system fulfils the demand for affordable yet flexible precision manufacturing with the capacity to handle different aircraft model panels within the work envelope.
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DRESS: Distributed and Redundant Electro-mechanical Nose Wheel Steering System

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Airbus Operations Ltd-George Iordanidis
Messier-Bugatti-Stephane Dellac
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-3110
Published 2009-11-10 by SAE International in United States
Scope of the DRESS project is to research, develop and validate a distributed and redundant electrical steering system technology for an aircraft nose landing gear. The new system aims to:• reduce system weight at aircraft level, replacing the current hydraulic actuation system with an electric one.• improve aircraft safety, achieving higher system redundancy levels compared to the current technology capabilities.This paper presents an outline of different activities occurring in the DRESS project and also shows preliminary results of the new system performance.
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Integrated Safety Management System

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Bombardier Aerospace-Michael Kavoliunas, Zdzislaw H. Klim
Hydro-Quebec-Dragan Komljenovic
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-3171
Published 2009-11-10 by SAE International in United States
The Safety Management System requires a structured Risk Management Process to be effective. In the technical fields where numerous potentially catastrophic risks exist, processes and procedures need to account not only for the hardware random failures but also of human errors. The technology has progressed to the point where the predominant safety risks are not so much the machine failures but that of the human interaction. Accidents are rarely the result of a single cause but of a number of latent contributing factors that when combined result in the accident.In the Aerospace industry, the operational risk to the fleet is assessed by the manufacturer and the operator independently and is used in safety and/or regulatory decision-making. For the manufacturer, the risk assessment is a philosophy whereby risk of a potential or actual occurrence is evaluated in comparison to the event analyzed in the system safety assessment or structural analysis performed for certification of the product. The resulting safety decision-making process involves integration of the probabilistic risk assessment, deterministic and severity perception elements such that the…
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