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Improve Heat Resistance of Composite Engine Cowlings Using Ceramic Coating Materials, Experimental Design and Testing

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Airbus Helicopter Inc.-Thomas Sippel
Mississippi State University-Yucheng Liu, Ge He
  • Journal Article
  • 01-11-01-0004
Published 2018-06-04 by SAE International in United States
A large amount of heat generated in the engineering compartment in a hovering helicopter may lead to premature degradation of inner skin of its engine cowling and cause serious failure on the engine cowling. This study proposes a solution of improving heat resistance of the helicopter engine cowlings by replacing the currently used intumescent coating with a ceramic coating material, Cerakote C-7700Q. Oven and flame tests were designed and conducted to evaluate the heat resistance of Cerakote C-7700Q. The test results show that the currently used painting scheme of the engine cowlings failed the 220°C oven test while after replacing the epoxy seal coat with the Cerakote, the new painting system passed the 220°C test in regards to painting bubbling. Based on that, a new painting scheme with C-7700Q implemented was recommended. It is suggested that the most time- and cost-effective solution to improve thermal performance of the helicopter engine cowlings is to repaint the current engine cowlings with the proposed new three coating system of Cerakote, surface protection HS7072-622, and intumescent paint as a…
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Enhanced Low-Order Model with Radiation for Total Temperature Probe Analysis and Design

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University-Joseph Schetz
Virginia Tech-Tyler Vincent, K. Todd Lowe
  • Journal Article
  • 01-11-01-0003
Published 2018-05-16 by SAE International in United States
Analysis and design of total temperature probes for accurate measurements in hot, high-speed flows remains a topic of great interest in aerospace propulsion and a number of other engineering areas. One can apply detailed computational methods for simultaneous convection, conduction and radiation heat transfer, but such approaches are not suitable for rapid, routine analysis and design studies. For these studies, there is still a place for low-order approximate methods, and that is the subject of this article. Here, an enhanced, low-order model is presented that includes conduction with variable thermal conductivity, convection with varying convection coefficient, varying diameter (and thus area) along the length of the sensor and radiation, all implemented in a convenient MATLAB code. We have also developed a new novel procedure to integrate the enhanced low-order model with computational fluid dynamics/conjugate heat transfer (CHT/CFD) simulations to accurately predict the important influences of radiation under different conditions in a very efficient manner.
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Evaluating How Functional Performance in Aerospace Components Is Affected by Geometric Variation

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Chalmers University of Technology-Anders Forslund, Julia Madrid, Rikard Söderberg, Ola Isaksson
GKN Aerospace-Johan Lööf
  • Journal Article
  • 01-11-01-0001
Published 2018-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Geometric variation stemming from manufacturing can be a limiting factor for the quality and reliability of products. Therefore, manufacturing assessments are increasingly being performed during the early stages of product development. In the aerospace industry, products are complex engineering systems, the development of which require multidisciplinary expertise. In such contexts, there are significant barriers against assessing the effects of geometric variation on the functionality of products. To overcome these barriers, this article introduces a new methodology consisting of a modelling approach linked to a multidisciplinary simulation environment. The modelling approach is based on the parametric point method, which allows point-scanned data to be transferred to parameterised CAD models. In a case study, the methodology is implemented in an industrial setting. The capability of the methodology is demonstrated through a few applications, in which the effects of geometric variation on the aerodynamic, thermal, and structural performance of a load-bearing turbofan component are analysed. The proposed methodology overcomes many of the current barriers, making it more feasible to assess the effects of geometric variation during the early…
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Exploring the Potential of Combustion on Titan

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

University of Kansas-Christopher Depcik
  • Journal Article
  • 01-11-01-0002
Published 2018-04-07 by SAE International in United States
Significant attention has been focused on Mars due to its relative proximity and possibility of sustaining human life. However, its lack of in-situ sources of energy presents a challenge to generate needed energy on the surface. Comparatively, Titan has a nearly endless source of fuel in its atmosphere and lakes, but both are lacking in regards to their oxidizing capacity. The finding of a possible underground liquid ammonia-water lake on Titan suggests that oxygen might actually be within reach. This effort provides the first theoretical study involving a primary energy generation system on Titan using the atmosphere as a fuel and underground water as the source for the oxygen via electrolysis from wind generated electricity. Thermodynamic calculations and use of chemical kinetics in a zero-dimensional Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine model demonstrate that is indeed possible to operate an internal combustion engine on the surface of Titan while providing heat for terraforming and human activities. Subsequent terraforming estimates illustrate that while the potential for energy and heat exists, the amount of needed hardware is…
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