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Determination of Influence of Parameters on Undercarriage Shock Absorber

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

IIST, India-Pallavi Singh
IISc, India-Badari Kantheti
  • Journal Article
  • 01-11-02-0006
Published 2018-12-31 by SAE International in United States
The simple oleo pneumatic (shock absorber) model was developed using the available computational fluid dynamics (CFD) program to understand how various parameters influence the performance of the undercarriage shock absorber. The study is divided into two parts: first part is focused on the influence of orifice geometry and the second part of the study is focused on the other parameters including chamber geometry. Both the studies are carried out using design of experiments (DOE) for the same output characteristics (response). In this study, the impacts on the flow behavior due to the orifice shapes are also studied. The results and the other outcomes are shown in the form of DOE parameters such as main effect plots and interaction plots.
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Power Quality Test Data Analysis for Aircraft Subsystem

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

UTC Aerospace Systems, India-Shobha Ramanjani
  • Journal Article
  • 01-11-02-0008
Published 2018-12-21 by SAE International in United States
Aircraft subsystem development involves various combinations of testing and qualification activities to realize a flight-worthy system. The subsystem needs to be verified for a massive number of customer requirements. Power quality (PQ) test is also an important testing activity carried out as part of the environmental qualification test. It is intended to verify the functionality of subsystems with various kinds of power disturbances and to determine the ability of a subsystem to withstand PQ disturbances. The subsystem being designed should be reliable enough to handle PQ anomalies. A PQ test results in an enormous amount of data for analysis with millions of data samples depending on the test and can be identified as big data. The engineer needs to analyze each set of test data as part of post-processing to ensure the power disturbances during testing are as per the standard requirements and that the functional performance of the subsystem is met. Manually analyzing the test data with classical methods and generating the report requires more time and effort, as millions of test data samples…
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Modeling of Ducted-Fan and Motor in an Electric Aircraft and a Preliminary Integrated Design

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Tsinghua University, China-Yuzhi Jin, Yuping Qian, Yangjun Zhang, Weilin Zhuge
  • Journal Article
  • 01-11-02-0007
Published 2018-10-04 by SAE International in United States
Electric ducted-fans with high power density are widely used in hybrid aircraft, electric aircraft, and VTOL vehicles. For the state-of-the-art electric ducted-fan, motor cooling restricts the power density increase. A motor design model based on the fan hub-to-tip ratio proposed in this article reveals that the thermal coupling effect between fan aerodynamic design and motor cooling design has great potential to increase the power density of the motor in an electric propulsion system. A smaller hub-to-tip ratio is preferred as long as the power balance and cooling balance are satisfied. Parametric study on a current 6 kW electric ducted-fan system shows that the highest motor power density could be increased by 246% based on the current technology. Finally, a preliminary design was obtained and experiments were conducted to prove the feasibility of the model.
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Open Access

Dynamic Particle Generation/Shedding in Lubricating Greases Used in Aerospace Applications

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Nye Lubricants, Inc.-Jason T. Galary
  • Journal Article
  • 01-11-02-0005
Published 2018-08-03 by SAE International in United States
The purpose of this study is to examine the phenomenon of Dynamic Particle Generation in lubricating greases that are used in a variety of critical Aerospace mechanisms. Particle Generation occurs in bearings, ball screws, and other mechanical devices where dynamic conditions are present. This should not be confused with outgassing as particle generation is unrelated to the pressure effects on a system. This is a critical factor in many systems as particle generation can contaminate systems or processes causing them to fail. These failures can lead to excessive costs, production failure, and equipment damage. In this study, several greases made from Multiplyalkylated Cyclopentane and Perfluoropolyether base fluids were tested to evaluate their particle generation properties. This particle generation phenomenon was studied using a custom test rig utilizing a high precision cleanroom ball-screw to simulate true application conditions. The ball-screw was tested at speeds from 200, 1,200, and 2,400 RPM to illustrate the effect of speed on the particle generation across different applications. This article will show the tendencies of different lubricant chemistries to generate particles…
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Improve Heat Resistance of Composite Engine Cowlings Using Ceramic Coating Materials, Experimental Design and Testing

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Airbus Helicopter Inc.-Thomas Sippel
Mississippi State University-Yucheng Liu, Ge He
  • Journal Article
  • 01-11-01-0004
Published 2018-06-04 by SAE International in United States
A large amount of heat generated in the engineering compartment in a hovering helicopter may lead to premature degradation of inner skin of its engine cowling and cause serious failure on the engine cowling. This study proposes a solution of improving heat resistance of the helicopter engine cowlings by replacing the currently used intumescent coating with a ceramic coating material, Cerakote C-7700Q. Oven and flame tests were designed and conducted to evaluate the heat resistance of Cerakote C-7700Q. The test results show that the currently used painting scheme of the engine cowlings failed the 220°C oven test while after replacing the epoxy seal coat with the Cerakote, the new painting system passed the 220°C test in regards to painting bubbling. Based on that, a new painting scheme with C-7700Q implemented was recommended. It is suggested that the most time- and cost-effective solution to improve thermal performance of the helicopter engine cowlings is to repaint the current engine cowlings with the proposed new three coating system of Cerakote, surface protection HS7072-622, and intumescent paint as a…
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Enhanced Low-Order Model with Radiation for Total Temperature Probe Analysis and Design

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University-Joseph Schetz
Virginia Tech-Tyler Vincent, K. Todd Lowe
  • Journal Article
  • 01-11-01-0003
Published 2018-05-16 by SAE International in United States
Analysis and design of total temperature probes for accurate measurements in hot, high-speed flows remains a topic of great interest in aerospace propulsion and a number of other engineering areas. One can apply detailed computational methods for simultaneous convection, conduction and radiation heat transfer, but such approaches are not suitable for rapid, routine analysis and design studies. For these studies, there is still a place for low-order approximate methods, and that is the subject of this article. Here, an enhanced, low-order model is presented that includes conduction with variable thermal conductivity, convection with varying convection coefficient, varying diameter (and thus area) along the length of the sensor and radiation, all implemented in a convenient MATLAB code. We have also developed a new novel procedure to integrate the enhanced low-order model with computational fluid dynamics/conjugate heat transfer (CHT/CFD) simulations to accurately predict the important influences of radiation under different conditions in a very efficient manner.
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Evaluating How Functional Performance in Aerospace Components Is Affected by Geometric Variation

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Chalmers University of Technology-Anders Forslund, Julia Madrid, Rikard Söderberg, Ola Isaksson
GKN Aerospace-Johan Lööf
  • Journal Article
  • 01-11-01-0001
Published 2018-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Geometric variation stemming from manufacturing can be a limiting factor for the quality and reliability of products. Therefore, manufacturing assessments are increasingly being performed during the early stages of product development. In the aerospace industry, products are complex engineering systems, the development of which require multidisciplinary expertise. In such contexts, there are significant barriers against assessing the effects of geometric variation on the functionality of products. To overcome these barriers, this article introduces a new methodology consisting of a modelling approach linked to a multidisciplinary simulation environment. The modelling approach is based on the parametric point method, which allows point-scanned data to be transferred to parameterised CAD models. In a case study, the methodology is implemented in an industrial setting. The capability of the methodology is demonstrated through a few applications, in which the effects of geometric variation on the aerodynamic, thermal, and structural performance of a load-bearing turbofan component are analysed. The proposed methodology overcomes many of the current barriers, making it more feasible to assess the effects of geometric variation during the early…
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Exploring the Potential of Combustion on Titan

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

University of Kansas-Christopher Depcik
  • Journal Article
  • 01-11-01-0002
Published 2018-04-07 by SAE International in United States
Significant attention has been focused on Mars due to its relative proximity and possibility of sustaining human life. However, its lack of in-situ sources of energy presents a challenge to generate needed energy on the surface. Comparatively, Titan has a nearly endless source of fuel in its atmosphere and lakes, but both are lacking in regards to their oxidizing capacity. The finding of a possible underground liquid ammonia-water lake on Titan suggests that oxygen might actually be within reach. This effort provides the first theoretical study involving a primary energy generation system on Titan using the atmosphere as a fuel and underground water as the source for the oxygen via electrolysis from wind generated electricity. Thermodynamic calculations and use of chemical kinetics in a zero-dimensional Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine model demonstrate that is indeed possible to operate an internal combustion engine on the surface of Titan while providing heat for terraforming and human activities. Subsequent terraforming estimates illustrate that while the potential for energy and heat exists, the amount of needed hardware is…
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