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Development of SLD Capabilities in the RTA Icing Wind Tunnel

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

RTA-Hermann Ferschitz, Michael Wannemacher, Otto Bucek, Florian Knöbel, Wolfgang Breitfuß
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-9001
Published 2017-06-29 by SAE International in United States
RTA Rail Tec Arsenal Fahrzeugversuchsanlage GmbH has focused on the simulation of in-flight icing conditions since 2012. Following the successful implementation of the icing conditions specified in EASA CS-25 Appendix C, it was expected that the facility could also be used to simulate the SLD conditions required by EASA CS-25 Appendix O. This paper sets forth theoretical considerations concerning the selection of suitable nozzles and their operation in the existing facility. The transport of large droplets through the contraction nozzle was simulated using a CFD program. The results then served as a basis for deriving secondary droplet breakup. The validations carried out confirm the theoretical considerations and identify potential limits and open research questions.
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Electric versus Hydraulic Flight Controls: Assessing Power Consumption and Waste Heat Using Stochastic System Methods

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

PC Krause & Associates-William Schley
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-2036
Published 2017-09-19 by SAE International in United States
Of all aircraft power and thermal loads, flight controls can be the most challenging to quantify because they are highly variable. Unlike constant or impulsive loads, actuator power demands more closely resemble random processes. Some inherent nonlinearities complicate this even further. Actuation power consumption and waste heat generation are both sensitive to input history. But control activity varies considerably with mission segment, turbulence and vehicle state. Flight control is a major power consumer at times, so quantifying power demand and waste heat is important for sizing power and thermal management system components. However, many designers sidestep the stochastic aspects of the problem initially, leading to overly conservative system sizing. The overdesign becomes apparent only after detailed flight simulations become available. These considerations are particularly relevant in trade studies comparing electric versus hydraulic actuation. These two actuation types use power in fundamentally different ways. This paper provides methods to quantify power consumption and waste heat, by applying stochastic system methods. Both electric (electromechanical and electrohydrostatic) and conventional hydraulic actuation are discussed. Formulas are derived to quantify…
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Optimizing the Benefit of Virtual Testing with a Process-Oriented Approach

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

dSPACE GmbH-Jann-Eve Stavesand, Sören Reglitz, Andreas Himmler
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-2114
Published 2017-09-19 by SAE International in United States
In the aerospace industry, methods for virtual testing cover an increasing range of test executions carried out during the development and test process of avionics systems. Over the last years, most companies have focused on questions regarding the evaluation and implementation of methods for virtual testing. However, it has become more and more important to seamlessly integrate virtual testing into the overall development process. For instance, a company’s test strategy might stipulate a combination of different methods, such as SIL and HIL simulation, in order to benefit from the advantages of both in the same test process. In this case, efforts concentrate on the optimization of the overall process, from test specification to test execution, as well as the test result evaluation and its alignment with methods for virtual testing. Furthermore, software tools have to be suitable for virtual testing and the entire tool chain has to be adaptable so it can be used for different test methods for various applications that have different users.This paper introduces an exemplary validation and verification process according to…
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Towards Standardising Methods for Reporting the Embodied Energy Content of Aerospace Products

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

ADS Group Ltd.-Kevin M Morris
ADS Group Ltd. and University of Surrey-Abdul Hakim Siddique Miah
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-9002
Published 2017-08-29 by SAE International in United States
Within the aerospace industry there is a growing interest in evaluating and reducing the environmental impacts of products and related risks to business. Consequently, requests from governments, customers, manufacturers, and other interested stakeholders, for environmental information about aerospace products are becoming widespread. Presently, requests are inconsistent and this limits the ability of the aerospace industry to meet the informational needs of various stakeholders and reduce the environmental impacts of their products in a cost-effective manner. Energy consumption is a significant business cost, risk, and a simple proxy value for overall environmental impact. This paper presents the initial research carried out by an academic and industry consortium to develop standardised methods for calculating and reporting the embodied manufacturing energy content of aerospace products. Following an action research approach, three potential methods are identified and applied in a real manufacturing environment. Suitability for use across the aerospace value chain is assessed. The benefits, implementations issues, areas of data uncertainty, and differences in results are outlined. Results show companies could be over/under reporting the embodied manufacturing energy content…
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Designing a Hybrid Electric Powertrain for an Unmanned Aircraft with a Commercial Optimization Software

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

University of Salento-Teresa Donateo, Antonio Ficarella
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-9000
Published 2017-06-29 by SAE International in United States
The design of a hybrid electric powertrain requires a complex optimization procedure because its performance will strongly depend on both the size of the components and the energy management strategy. The problem is particular critical in the aircraft field because of the strong constraints to be fulfilled (in particular in terms of weight and volume). The problem was addressed in the present investigation by linking an in-house simulation code for hybrid electric aircraft with a commercial many-objective optimization software. The design variables include the size of engine and electric motor, the specification of the battery (typology, nominal capacity, bus voltage), the cooling method of the motor and the battery management strategy. Several key performance indexes were suggested by the industrial partner. The four most important indexes were used as fitness functions: electric endurance, fuel consumption, take-off distance and powertrain volume. A design able to fulfill all the targets set by the industrial partner was found using an elimination-by-aspect approach applied to the overall Pareto front. The results of the algorithm were post-processed and some metrics…
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