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Prismatic Li-Ion Cell for Unmanned Aircraft

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Naval Air Systems Command-William Johnson, Mark Hurley
SAFT America-Kamen Nechev, Bridget Deveney, Teymur Guseynov
  • Journal Article
  • 2008-01-2894
Published 2008-11-11 by SAE International in United States
Saft is working on advanced 28V Li-ion batteries for use in NAVY unmanned aircraft applications. This battery employs seven (7) prismatic state-of-the art Li-ion cells connected in series. The battery needs to be less than 40lbs in weight and 600 in3 in volume. This paper presents the performance results of the new prismatic cell. This development is pioneering new technological territories for SAFT since the PL55E cell is the first prismatic cell developed and delivered by SAFT America [1]. The experience gained will be useful and the PL55E cell will be followed by more prismatic cells added to the SAFT Li-ion portfolio. The presentation will give an overall status update of the technology as well as a brief overview of the complete 28V battery.
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Expanding the Temperature Range of High Power Lithium-Ion Chemistry

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Quallion LLC-Vincent Visco, Hisashi Tsukamoto, Michael Tomcsi
  • Journal Article
  • 2008-01-2896
Published 2008-11-11 by SAE International in United States
Lithium-ion batteries provide high specific energy, high power capability and long term reliability when compared to other types of battery cell chemistries. In addition, they are effective in a diverse array of industrial applications including commercial, aerospace and medical.Quallion has begun to analyze the military aircrafts power profile with state of the art (SOA) commercial grade high power lithium-ion cells. Although the SOA chemistry can meet the power profiles at room temperature, the cells cannot meet the performance requirements for low temperature mission profiles and high temperature storage. To address this, Quallion has manufactured lithium ion test cells to evaluate new electrolytes and other high power components for these applications.
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Wind Energy Harvesting for Low Power Applications

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

US Army-Edward Dawidowicz
  • Journal Article
  • 2008-01-2864
Published 2008-11-11 by SAE International in United States
A study was made to determine the effectiveness of low power wind energy harvesting for mobile applications. Experimental and simulated data has shown that harvesting of alternative energy resources is viable for potential mobile applications. This conducted study incorporated a mobile configuration consisting of a wind-photovoltaic hybrid in concert with a vehicle generator. The study has demonstrated an improvement in overall efficiency of the power generation system.
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Development of High Temperature Capacitors for High Density, High Temperature Applications

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Bollore, Inc.-Christophe Garet
Dearborn Electronics, Inc.-Mark Carter, Mark Rumler
  • Journal Article
  • 2008-01-2851
Published 2008-11-11 by SAE International in United States
A number of alternative capacitor technologies have been studied and high-temperature extruded polymer film capacitors hold the promise to meet the critical needs for temperature, energy density, reliability, cost and availability. Polymer resins capable of continuous use up to 200°C can be extruded into very thin films thereby permitting higher capacitor operating temperatures, higher energy density and improved cost structure compared to films manufactured by solvent casting processes. Studies of polymeric resins have shown that high-engineered polyetherimides show great promise for use as dielectric capacitor films. Polyetherimides can be melt extruded into thin films providing a low cost, environmentally friendly dielectric material. Discussions of the results of melt extrusion, metallization, and winding into electrostatic polyetherimide film capacitors will be given comparing and contrasting the results to other electrostatic film capacitor designs.
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Aircraft Performance Prediction: Comparison of Classical Handbook Methods to Detailed Time Integration Computer-Aided Methods

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

DARcorporation-Willem A. J. Anemaat, Ken Po, Balaji Kaushik
  • Journal Article
  • 2008-01-2253
Published 2008-08-19 by SAE International in United States
The purpose of this paper is to compare classical handbook methods used to predict performance parameters such as range and endurance to computer based methods. Three different methods are compared: classical handbook methods are based on simple drag polars and engine performance data, spreadsheet methods use more detailed engine data and drag polars and third is the use of APP (Aircraft Performance Program), a commercially available software program. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are described and accuracy listed based on existing airplanes. One example is used: a business jet type aircraft. Methods used are described and inputs and outputs of the different programs used are shown.
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Shielding Effectiveness of Sodium Alanate and Ammonia Borane for Galactic Cosmic Ray and Solar Energetic Particle Event Environments

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

New Paradigm Innovation-Peter Thomas
The Boeing Company-William Atwell
  • Journal Article
  • 2008-01-2163
Published 2008-06-29 by SAE International in United States
Estimates of the effectiveness of the high-hydrogen containing materials, sodium alanate and ammonia borane, are made by calculating dose and dose equivalent for the 1977 solar minimum and 1970 solar maximum galactic cosmic ray spectra and for the large solar particle event spectra from the space era event of August 1972 and comparing their shielding effectiveness with that of polyethylene.
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Design of a Sublimator Driven Coldplate Development Unit

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

NASA Johnson Space Center-Ryan A. Stephan
Oceaneering Space Systems-Osama Abounasr
  • Journal Article
  • 2008-01-2169
Published 2008-06-29 by SAE International in United States
The Sublimator Driven Coldplate is a unique piece of thermal control hardware that has several advantages over a traditional thermal control scheme. The principal advantage is the possible elimination of a pumped fluid loop, potentially saving mass, power, and complexity. Because this concept relies on evaporative heat rejection techniques, it is primarily useful for short mission durations. Additionally, the concept requires a conductive path between the heat-generating component and the heat rejection device. Therefore, it is mostly a relevant solution for a vehicle with a relatively low heat rejection requirement. This paper describes the design of an engineering development unit intended to demonstrate the feasibility of the Sublimator Driven Coldplate concept.
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A Fresh Look at Radiation Exposures from Major Solar Proton Events

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

NASA Langley Research Center-F. F. Badavi
The Boeing Company-William Atwell
  • Journal Article
  • 2008-01-2164
Published 2008-06-29 by SAE International in United States
Solar proton events (SPEs) represent the single-most significant source of acute radiation exposure during space missions. Historically, an exponential in rigidity (particle momentum) fit has been used to express the SPE energy spectrum using GOES data up to 100 MeV. More recently, researchers have found that a Weibull fit better represents the energy spectrum up to 1000 MeV (1 GeV). In addition, the availability of SPE data extending up to several GeV has been incorporated in analyses to obtain a more complete and accurate energy spectrum representation. In this paper we discuss the major SPEs that have occurred over the past five solar cycles (~50+ years) in detail - in particular, Aug 1972 and Sept & Oct 1989 SPEs. Using a high-energy particle transport/dose code, radiation exposure estimates are presented for various thicknesses of aluminum. The effects on humans and spacecraft systems are also discussed in detail.
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Advanced FeF3 Cathode Enabled Lithium-ion Battery

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Mobile Energy Products, Inc.-Za Johnson, Stephen Cordova
Rutgers University-G. G. Amatucci
  • Journal Article
  • 2008-01-2895
Published 2008-11-11 by SAE International in United States
At present Li-ion batteries are the premier rechargeable energy storage technology and they offer a promising future as a power source for high energy density battery applications. Unfortunately, their high performance still falls short of energy density goals in many military ground battery and soldier portable applications. Although a number of factors within the battery cell contribute to this performance parameter, the most crucial one relates to how much energy can be stored in the positive and negative electrode materials of the lithium ion battery. Very little focus had been shown in the research of the electrochemistry of transition metal fluorides until Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey began its investigation. The reason for this apparent lack of interest in these compounds was that their intrinsic properties appeared to make them less desirable as possible electrode materials for lithium batteries. Metal fluorides are notorious for their poor electronic conductivity due to the large bandgap induced by the highly ionic character of the metal-halogen bond. This point had kept them away from the radar screen…
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Design of Compact, Lightweight Power Transmission Devices for Specialized High Power Applications

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

The Air Force Research Laboratory-T. J. Haugan, J. D. Long, L. A. Hampton, P. N. Barnes
  • Journal Article
  • 2008-01-2930
Published 2008-11-11 by SAE International in United States
The design of compact and lightweight power transmission devices was studied for specialized high power applications, including airborne with operating voltage fixed at 270 Volts and less than 30 meter length conductors. Only commercial-off-the-shelf components were considered for the design. It was found that by using superconducting wires operated at cryogenic temperatures instead of Cu conductors, a large increase of performance could be achieved; e.g. there is large reduction of heat loss; and for 5 MW-class or 20 kA power transmission there is a substantial reduction of weight of ∼ 80/kg per meter and an approximate 10x reduction of volume. A strong reduction of weight is achieved for > 1000 Amp power transmission.
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