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Human Mechanical Response Characteristics

Human Biomechanics and Simulations Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1460_201302
  • Current
Published 2013-02-21 by SAE International in United States
While this report does not include a discussion of all of the available data defining human response or address all body areas, for those areas addressed it does utilize references generally judged by those in the field to be practical and meaningful guidelines for the development of human surrogates. This report is intended to be a “living” document that will be updated periodically. A number of problems need to be addressed in defining human impact response characteristics. There is the problem of human response variability from subject to subject in volunteer tests. There is the problem of extrapolating such volunteer data which are obtained at low impact severities to higher impact severities using human cadaver response data obtained at injurious levels of impacts. Live animal experiments have been conducted over the years in an attempt to define human impact response and tolerance. The problem with using animal response data is the lack of geometric scaling techniques needed to interpret the data relative to the human size and shape. The last problem area is that the…
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Human Mechanical Impact Response Characteristics - Dynamic Response of the Human Abdomen

Human Biomechanics and Simulations Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1460/1_201205
  • Current
Published 2012-05-11 by SAE International in United States
This series of reports provides response characteristics of the head, face, neck, shoulder, thorax, lumbar spine, abdomen, pelvis, and lower extremities. In each report, the descriptions of human impact response are based on data judged by the subcommittee to provide the most appropriate information for the development of human surrogates.
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Guidelines for Evaluating Child Restraint System Interactions with Deploying Airbags

Human Biomechanics and Simulations Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2189_201102
  • Current
Published 2011-02-24 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Information Report prescribes dummies, procedures, and configurations that can be used for investigating the interactions that might occur between a deploying airbag and a child restrained by a child restraint system (CRS). During the inflation process, airbags generate a considerable amount of kinetic energy which can result in substantial forces being applied to a child who is restrained in a CRS in the front seat of a vehicle. Field data collected by the special crash investigation team of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) indicate that fatal forces can be developed. In response to these field data, NHTSA added a series of airbag/child interaction tests and limits to the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR 571.208) that deal with occupant protection, commonly known as Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS 208). The bases for NHTSA tests are the various test procedures that were developed by the International Standards Organization (ISO) and the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE). This document was one of those reports. This document describes static and dynamic tests that can…
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Human Tolerance to Impact Conditions as Related to Motor Vehicle Design

Human Biomechanics and Simulations Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J885_201102
  • Current
Published 2011-02-21 by SAE International in United States
This report reviews current1 quantitative data on human tolerance levels without recommending specific limits. Data developed on humans (including cadavers) are presented where available; however, in many cases animal data are provided where no suitable human results have been reported. This report confines itself, as much as possible, to information of direct use to the automotive designer and tester. Data of only academic interest are largely omitted; therefore, J885 should not be considered as a complete summary of all available biomechanical data. Most of the data cited in this report applies to adult males since little information is available on women or children. The summary data provided in the tables should be considered in conjunction with the accompanying descriptive test. This material explains the manner in which the data were obtained and provides an insight as to their limitations.
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Guidelines for Evaluating Out-of-Position Vehicle Occupant Interactions with Deploying Frontal Airbags

Human Biomechanics and Simulations Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1980_201102
  • Current
Published 2011-02-21 by SAE International in United States
An airbag generates a considerable amount of kinetic energy during its inflation process. As a result substantial forces can be developed between the deploying airbag and the out-of-position occupant. Accident data and laboratory test results have indicated a potential for head, neck, chest, abdominal, and leg injuries from these forces. This suggests that mitigating such forces should be considered in the design of airbag restraint systems. This document outlines a comprehensive set of test guidelines that can be used for investigating the interactions that occur between the deploying airbag and the occupant who is near the module at the time of deployment. Static and dynamic tests to investigate driver and passenger systems are given. Static tests may be used to sort designs on a comparative basis. Designs that make it through the static sorting procedure may be subjected to the appropriate dynamic tests. On a specific vehicle model, engineering judgment based upon prior experience in airbag testing may make it unnecessary to conduct the tests identified by the document or may indicate that different tests…
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Human Mechanical Impact Response Characteristics - Response of the Human Neck to Inertial Loading by the Head for Automotive Seated Postures

Human Biomechanics and Simulations Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1460/2_201102
  • Current
Published 2011-02-21 by SAE International in United States
This series of reports provides response characteristics of the head, face, neck, shoulder, thorax, lumbar spine, abdomen, pelvis, and lower extremities. In each report, the descriptions of human impact response are based on data judged by the subcommittee to provide the most appropriate information for the development of human surrogates.
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Pedestrian Dummy Full Scale Test Results and Resource Materials

Human Biomechanics and Simulations Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2868_201010
  • Current
Published 2010-10-14 by SAE International in United States
The materials included in this J document are not intended to represent a complete summary of pedestrian safety research activities, but are rather a collection of materials which can be helpful to users of SAE J2782.
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Performance Specifications for a Midsize Male Pedestrian Research Dummy

Human Biomechanics and Simulations Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2782_201010
  • Current
Published 2010-10-14 by SAE International in United States
While it is recognized that collisions involve pedestrians of all sizes, this Information Report addresses performance specifications for a midsize adult male research dummy. This approach stems from the greater knowledge of biomechanics and existing dummy technologies for the midsize male relative to other adult sizes and children. While not the initial objective, it is envisioned that additional performance specifications for other sizes of pedestrian research dummies will be developed in the future based on accepted scaling procedures. The specific requirements for the pedestrian dummy have been based on a collective assessment of pedestrian injury, response, and anthropometry priorities from the experimental, epidemiologic, and computational literature. In general, the objective was to specify performance specifications based on human characteristics and the impact response of post-mortem human subjects rather than to specify the design of a particular physical device. Based on the perceived applications for a research pedestrian dummy, the primary focus of this document centered on biofidelic whole-body kinematics during a vehicle-pedestrian impact. Specific body regions were prioritized (see A.1.5) based on a combination of…
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Guidelines for Evaluating Out-of-Position Vehicle Occupant Interactions with Deploying Frontal Airbags

Human Biomechanics and Simulations Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1980_200806
  • Historical
Published 2008-06-17 by SAE International in United States
An airbag generates a considerable amount of kinetic energy during its inflation process. As a result substantial forces can be developed between the deploying airbag and the out-of-position occupant. Accident data and laboratory test results have indicated a potential for head, neck, chest, abdominal, and leg injuries from these forces. This suggests that mitigating such forces should be considered in the design of airbag restraint systems. This document outlines a comprehensive set of test guidelines that can be used for investigating the interactions that occur between the deploying airbag and the occupant who is near the module at the time of deployment. Static and dynamic tests to investigate driver and passenger systems are given. Static tests may be used to sort designs on a comparative basis. Designs that make it through the static sorting procedure may be subjected to the appropriate dynamic tests. On a specific vehicle model, engineering judgment based upon prior experience in airbag testing may make it unnecessary to conduct the tests identified by the document or may indicate that different tests…

Human Mechanical Impact Response Characteristics--Response of the Human Neck to Inertial Loading by the Head for Automotive Seated Postures

Human Biomechanics and Simulations Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1460/2_200806
  • Historical
Published 2008-06-17 by SAE International in United States
This series of reports provides response characteristics of the head, face, neck, shoulder, thorax, lumbar spine, abdomen, pelvis, and lower extremities. In each report, the decriptions of human impact respnse are based on data judged by the subcommittee to provide the most appropriate information for the development of human surrogates. This is one of a series of reports which define human mechanical impact response characteristics for specific body regions. These reports update SAE J1460 which is intended for use by anthropomorphic test dummy designers and analytical modelers who need qualitative definitions of human mechnical impact behavior.These reports do not discuss criteria for assessing human impact injury potential, which are the subject of SAE J885. Each document in the series covers material specific to a body region and will be independently updated when new response data become available. The goal of this report is to characterize the response of human neck due to head inertial loading when the occupant is sitting in an automotive posture.