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Cooling Flow Measurement Techniques

Road Vehicle Aerodynamics Forum Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2082_201809
  • Current
Published 2018-09-26 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Information Report has been prepared at the request of the SAE Road Vehicle Aerodynamics Forum Committee (RVAC), incorporating material from earlier revisions of the document first prepared by the Standards Committee on Cooling Flow Measurement (CFM). Although a great deal is already known about engine cooling, recent concern with fuel conservation has resulted in generally smaller air intakes whose shape and location are dictated primarily by low vehicle drag/high forward speed requirements. The new vehicle intake configurations make it more difficult to achieve adequate cooling under all conditions. They cause cooling flow velocity profiles to become distorted and underhood temperatures to be excessively high. Such problems make it necessary to achieve much better accuracy in measuring cooling flows. As the following descriptions show, each company or institution concerned with this problem has invested a lot of time and as a result gained considerable experience in developing measuring techniques that appear to achieve reliable results. There is, however, little uniformity at the present time among the methods used by different companies and no indication…
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Aerodynamic Testing of Road Vehicles - Testing Methods and Procedures

Road Vehicle Aerodynamics Forum Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2084_201604
  • Current
Published 2016-04-12 by SAE International in United States
The scope of this SAE Information Report is confined to wind-tunnel testing, although it is recognized that many aspects of the aerodynamic characteristics of road vehicles can be investigated in other test facilities (such as water-tanks) or, especially, on the road. For example, coastdown testing is often used to determine aerodynamic drag (either in isolation or as part of the total resistance), and artificial gust generators are used to investigate the sensitivity of vehicles to cross-wind gusts. Also excluded from the present Report are climatic wind-tunnel tests of road vehicles, which are defined in more detail in Section 3. The Report covers the aerodynamic requirements of a wind-tunnel for automotive testing, together with the facility equipment needed and the requirements affecting the test vehicle or model. The test methods and procedures described here include those for six-component force measurements and measurements of pressures and velocities both on the vehicle/model surface and in the surrounding flow-field. Flow visualization techniques are outlined, with reference to the detailed coverage in a related SAE Information Report (2). In addition,…
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Vehicle Aerodynamics Terminology

Road Vehicle Aerodynamics Forum Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1594_201007
  • Current
Published 2010-07-29 by SAE International in United States
This terminology is intended to provide a common nomenclature for use in publishing road vehicle aerodynamics data and reports.
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Measurement of Aerodynamic Performance for Mass-Produced Cars and Light-Duty Trucks

Road Vehicle Aerodynamics Forum Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2881_201006
  • Current
Published 2010-06-03 by SAE International in United States
This recommended practice provides a procedure for measuring and documenting the aerodynamic performance in a full-scale wind tunnel of passenger vehicles, i.e., mass-produced cars and light-duty trucks intended primarily for individual consumers. Testing or numerical modeling of pre-production and/or reduced-scale models is outside the scope of this document. Aerodynamic development procedures, i.e., methods to improve or optimize aerodynamic performance, are also excluded. It is well-known that aerodynamic performance results depend significantly on vehicle content and loading, as well as the wind tunnel itself (type, scale, and simulation qualities of the wind tunnel). Publication of non-standard test results causes unnecessary additional development work and incorrect perception of a vehicle’s anticipated aerodynamic performance by government, academia, and the general public. The intent of this document is to promote uniformity and traceability of published aerodynamic performance data acquired in a wind tunnel, thereby enhancing the public reputation and credibility of the aerodynamics discipline in the total vehicle development process. Measurement of the aerodynamic performance according to this recommended practice requires a full-scale wind tunnel test on a production-ready,…
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Value Based Decision Making

Road Vehicle Aerodynamics Forum Committee
Cornell Univ.-Albert R. George
  • Special Publication (SP)
  • SP-1185
Published 1996-05-01 by SAE International in United States
This special publication addresses value lessions learned, as well as several value challenges for the '90s and beyond. Contents includ: fundamentals of value benchmarking; a methodology for estimating the value of interior room in automobiles; predicting product manufacturing costs from design attributes: a complexity theory approach; examining the trade-off between automobile acceleration performance and fuel economy; value based decision making for the small engineering firm; customer focused value engineering; implementing market research into customer focused value engineering; cost awareness in design: the role of data commonality; customer FAST diagramming: a process to facilitate vehicle development; vying for value: a supplier's perspective on the competitive advantage of value engineering; and benchmarking product value: mid-sized automotive

Vehicle Aerodynamics Terminology

Road Vehicle Aerodynamics Forum Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1594_199412
  • Historical
Published 1994-12-01 by SAE International in United States
This terminology is intended to provide a common nomenclature for use in publishing road vehicle aerodynamics data and reports.

AERODYNAMIC TESTING OF ROAD VEHICLES - OPEN THROAT WIND TUNNEL ADJUSTMENT

Road Vehicle Aerodynamics Forum Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2071_199406
  • Current
Published 1994-06-01 by SAE International in United States
As a simulation of road driving, wind tunnel testing of full-size vehicles produces certain errors in the aerodynamic forces, aerodynamic moments, and surface pressures. The magnitude of these errors, in general, depends on the following: a Flow quality b Determination of the reference dynamic pressure c Wind tunnel floor boundary layer d Test section geometry and position of the car within that geometry e Shape of the vehicle f Blockage ratio: The ratio of the cross-sectional area of the vehicle to the cross-sectional area of the wind tunnel nozzle g Wheel rotation h Internal flow in the model The SAE Standards Committee, Open Throat Wind Tunnel Adjustments had as a goal to document the knowledge of the influence of model interference on wind tunnel test results for automotive open jet wind tunnels. This document contains the following information related to this subject: a Design data of open throat wind tunnels b A summary of published and unpublished test data c Documentation and theoretical explanation of various blockage correction procedures for automotive tests d Critical evaluation…
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AERODYNAMIC TESTING OF ROAD VEHICLES—TESTING METHODS AND PROCEDURES

Road Vehicle Aerodynamics Forum Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2084_199301
  • Historical
Published 1993-01-01 by SAE International in United States
The scope of this SAE Information Report is confined to wind-tunnel testing, although it is recognized that many aspects of the aerodynamic characteristics of road vehicles can be investigated in other test facilities (such as water-tanks) or, especially, on the road. For example, coastdown testing is often used to determine aerodynamic drag (either in isolation or as part of the total resistance), and artificial gust generators are used to investigate the sensitivity of vehicles to cross-wind gusts. Also excluded from the present Report are climatic wind-tunnel tests of road vehicles, which are defined in more detail in Section 3. The Report covers the aerodynamic requirements of a wind-tunnel for automotive testing, together with the facility equipment needed and the requirements affecting the test vehicle or model. The test methods and procedures described here include those for six-component force measurements and measurements of pressures and velocities both on the vehicle/model surface and in the surrounding flow-field. Flow visualization techniques are outlined, with reference to the detailed coverage in a related SAE Information Report (2). In addition,…
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COOLING FLOW MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES

Road Vehicle Aerodynamics Forum Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2082_199206
  • Historical
Published 1992-06-01 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Information Report has been prepared by the Standards Committee on Cooling Flow Measurement (CFM) at the request of the SAE Road Vehicle Aerodynamics Forum Committee (RVAC). The committee was formed in January 1985 for the purpose of investigating what measuring techniques are used by automotive product manufacturers to determine air cooling air flow rates and, if possible, to synthesize these into a recommended practice report. Although a great deal is already known about engine cooling, recent concern with fuel conservation has resulted in generally smaller air intakes whose shape and location are dictated primarily by low vehicle drag/high forward speed requirements. The new vehicle intake configurations make it more difficult to achieve adequate cooling under all conditions. They cause cooling flow velocity profiles to become distorted and underhood temperatures to be excessively high. Such problems make it necessary to achieve much better accuracy in measuring cooling flows. As the following descriptions show, each company or institution concerned with this problem has invested a lot of time and as a result gained considerable experience…
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Aerodynamic Testing of Road Vehicles--Open Throat Wind Tunnel Adjustment

Road Vehicle Aerodynamics Forum Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2071_199003
  • Historical
Published 1990-03-01 by SAE International in United States
As a simulation of road driving, wind tunnel testing of full-size vehicles produces certain errors in the aerodynamic forces, aerodynamic moments, and surface pressures. The magnitude of these errors, in general, depends on the following: a.) Flow quality, b.) Determination of the reference dynamic pressure, c.) Wind tunnel floor boundary layer, d.) Test section geometry and position of the car within that geometry, e.) Shape of the vehicle, f.) Blockage ratio: The ratio of the cross-sectional area of the vehicle to the cross-sectional area of the wind tunnel nozzle, g.) Wheel rotation, and h.) Internal flow in the model. The SAE Standards Committee, Open Throat Wind Tunnel Adjustments, had as a goal to document the knowledge of the influence of model interference on wind tunnel test results for automotive open jet wind tunnels. This document contains the following information related to this subject: a.) Design data of open throat wind tunnels, b.) A summary of published and unpublished test data, c.) Documentation and theoretical explanation of various blockage correction procedures for automotive tests, d.) Critical…