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A Dictionary of Terms for the Dynamics and Handling of Single Track Vehicles (Motorcycles, Scooters, Mopeds, and Bicycles)

Motorcycle Technical Steering Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1451_201909
  • Current
Published 2019-09-24 by SAE International in United States
Terminology within this document is limited to the dynamics and handling characteristics of single track, two-wheeled vehicles.
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Motorcycle Terminology

Motorcycle Technical Steering Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J3133_201909
  • Current
Published 2019-09-24 by SAE International in United States
The motorcycle terminology presented herein addresses two-wheel single track vehicles, as well as motorized three wheel cycles. Although two-wheeled, single track scooters and mopeds are similar to traditional motorcycles, they have many characteristics which differentiate them from motorcycles, and while some terms will apply, this Terminology addresses motorcycles specifically, unless otherwise noted. Likewise, some three wheel cycles may have some similar design features and share components with motorcycle, the dynamics and handling of three wheel vehicles differs from two wheel, single track motorcycles. The terminology presents definitions covering the following subjects: dynamics and handling of single track vehicles, motorcycle categories and types, motorcycle crash dynamics and technology, and in-depth crash investigations, motorcycle design and components, systems, and equipment, motorcycle operation, operational environments and hazards, rider protective equipment including helmets and clothing, rider behaviors, motorcycle safety, competitive motorcycle events and the specialized motorcycles used those events, key national motorcycle-related organization, selected phrases commonly used uniquely by motorcyclists, and related performance measures and selected test criteria. NOTE: Motorcycle emission terminology does not vary from automobile emission terminology…
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Operator Controls and Displays on Motorcycles

Motorcycle Technical Steering Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J107_201908
  • Current
Published 2019-08-28 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Recommended Practice applies to two- and three-wheel motorcycles intended for highway use. Vehicles commonly known as mopeds and mini-bikes are included in this vehicle category if they are intended for highway use.
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Performance of Audible Warning Devices (Horns) for Motorcycles

Motorcycle Technical Steering Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1192_201712
  • Current
Published 2017-12-20 by SAE International in United States
The requirements of this document apply to all classes of motorcycles as defined in SAE J213.
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Measurement of Exhaust Sound Pressure Levels of Stationary Motorcycles

Motorcycle Technical Steering Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1287_201704
  • Current
Published 2017-04-28 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Standard establishes the test procedure, environment, and instrumentation for determining the exhaust sound pressure levels of motorcycles under stationary conditions. Since initial publication, it has been successfully applied to regulation and monitoring of sound pressure levels of off-highway vehicles, and that remains its recommended application. Users of SAE J1287 for the purpose of roadside enforcement of sound pressure levels for on-highway motorcycles have reported difficulties with its implementation in that application. In response, SAE J2825 was developed, and is recommended for measurement of exhaust sound pressure levels of stationary on-highway motorcycles. Care must be taken not to confuse stationary sound pressure levels with total motorcycle sound pressure levels. This test does not evaluate total motorcycle sound during operation. For this purpose, SAE J331 or SAE J47 is recommended. Any allowable sound limits (dBA) set in relation to SAE J1287 for exhaust sound pressure level should not conflict with the allowable sound limits (dBA) for total sound pressure level per the EPA requirements specified in the US Code of Federal Regulations, 40 Part 205.
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Rear View Mirrors - Motorcycles

Motorcycle Technical Steering Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J268_201608
  • Current
Published 2016-08-03 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Recommended Practice specifies recommendations for rear view mirror systems to provide the operator with a clear view to the rear. It is intended as a supplement to the requirements for motorcycle mirrors given in 49 CFR 571.111.
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Motorcycle Side Stand Retraction Performance Requirements

Motorcycle Technical Steering Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1579_201410
  • Current
Published 2014-10-24 by SAE International in United States
These requirements define minimum recommended levels of side stand retraction performance of a new side stand/motorcycle combination when tested according to the procedures of SAE J1578.
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Motorcycle Side Stand Retraction Test Procedure

Motorcycle Technical Steering Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1578_201410
  • Current
Published 2014-10-24 by SAE International in United States
This test procedure provides a standard method for evaluating the side stand retraction performance of a side stand/motorcycle combination.
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Characterizing a Test Surface for Motorcycle Side Stand Retraction Performance Testing

Motorcycle Technical Steering Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1846_201410
  • Current
Published 2014-10-24 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Recommended Practice is intended for use only in characterizing test surfaces used in motorcycle side stand retraction testing (SAE J1578). The equipment and procedure described in this document yields repeatable results in characterizing test surfaces in a way found to be related to retraction performance. The test results obtained with this procedure do not necessarily correlate with measurements obtained with other friction measurement procedures which have been developed for other purposes.
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Motorcycle Classifications

Motorcycle Technical Steering Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J213_201409
  • Current
Published 2014-09-02 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Recommended Practice provides uniform definitions and classifications for motorcycles.
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