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Use of Terms Yield Strength and Yield Point

Carbon and Alloy Steels Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J450_201710
  • Current
Published 2017-10-10 by SAE International in United States
The purpose of this SAE Recommended Practice is to describe the terms yield strength and yield point. Included are definitions for both terms and recommendations for their use and application.
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Carbon and Alloy Steels

Carbon and Alloy Steels Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J411_201501
  • Current
Published 2015-01-23 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Information Report describes the processing and fabrication of carbon and alloy steels. The basic steelmaking process including iron ore reduction, the uses of fluxes, and the various melting furnaces are briefly described. The various types of steels: killed, rimmed, semikilled, and capped are described in terms of their melting and microstructural differences and their end product use. This document also provides a list of the commonly specified elements used to alloy elemental iron into steel. Each element’s structural benefits and effects are also included. A list of the AISI Steel Products Manuals is included and describes the various finished shapes in which steel is produced.
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Chemical Compositions of SAE Carbon Steels

Carbon and Alloy Steels Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J403_201406
  • Current
Published 2014-06-30 by SAE International in United States
In 1941, the SAE Iron and Steel Division, in collaboration with the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI), made a major change in the method of expressing composition ranges for the SAE steels. The plan, as now applied, is based in general on narrower cast or heat analysis ranges plus certain product analysis allowances on individual samples, in place of the fixed ranges and limits without tolerances formerly provided for carbon and other elements in SAE steels. For years the variety of chemical compositions of steel has been a matter of concern in the steel industry. It was recognized that production of fewer grades of steel could result in improved deliveries and provide a better opportunity to achieve advances in technology, manufacturing practices, and quality, and thus develop more fully the possibilities of application inherent in those grades. Comprehensive and impartial studies were directed toward determining which of the many grades being specified were the ones in most common demand, and the feasibility of combining compositions having like requirements. From these studies, the most common…
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Selection and Use of Steels

Carbon and Alloy Steels Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J401_201203
  • Current
Published 2012-03-12 by SAE International in United States
The SAE system of designating steels, described in SAE J402, classifies and numbers them according to chemical composition. In the case of the dent resistant, high strength and ultra high strength steels in SAE J2340, advanced high strength steels described in SAE J2745, and the high strength steels in SAE J1442 and the high-strength carbon and alloy die drawn steels in SAE J935, minimum mechanical property requirements have been included in the designations. In addition, hardenability data on most of the alloy steels and some of the carbon steels will be found in SAE J1268.
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Mechanical Properties of Heat Treated Wrought Steels

Carbon and Alloy Steels Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J413_201110
  • Current
Published 2011-10-27 by SAE International in United States
The figures in this SAE Information Report illustrate the principle that, regardless of composition, steels of the same cross-sectional hardness produced by tempering after through hardening will have approximately the same longitudinal1 tensile strength at room temperature. Figure 1 shows the relation between hardness and longitudinal tensile strength of 0.30 to 0.50% carbon steels in the fully hardened and tempered, as rolled, normalized, and annealed conditions. Figure 2 showing the relation between longitudinal tensile strength and yield strength, and Figure 3 illustrating longitudinal tensile strength versus reduction of area, are typical of steels in the quenched and tempered condition. Figure 3 shows the direct relationship between ductility and hardness and illustrates the fact that the reduction of area decreases as hardness increases, and that, for a given hardness, the reduction of area is generally higher for alloy steels than for plain carbon steels. It is evident from these curves that steels of the same cross-sectional hardness have about the same strength characteristics, so that any one of several different compositions would yield the same results.…
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Hardenability Bands for Carbon and Alloy H Steels

Carbon and Alloy Steels Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1268_201005
  • Current
Published 2010-05-03 by SAE International in United States
All carbon and alloy H-band steels are shown, along with their corresponding minimum and maximum hardenability limits, for which sufficient hardenability data have been established and for grades which use the standard end-quench test. As hardenability data are accumulated for other grades, this SAE Standard will be revised to include such grades.
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Selecting and Specifying Hot-Rolled Steel Bar Products

Carbon and Alloy Steels Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2281_201003
  • Current
Published 2010-03-01 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Information Report relates to hot-rolled steel bar products. It is intended as a guideline to assist in the selection and specification of hot-rolled steel bar; however, it is not to be interpreted as a material specification in itself.
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Restricted Hardenability Bands for Selected Alloy Steels

Carbon and Alloy Steels Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1868_201002
  • Current
Published 2010-02-15 by SAE International in United States
Restricted hardenability steels have been in use for some time but the specific restrictions for a particular grade depend upon customer needs and vary from mill to mill. Such steels are desirable to provide more controlled heat treatment response and dimensional control for critical parts. Because of increasing interest in steels with restricted hardenability, the SAE Iron and Steel Technical Committee directed Division 8 to prepare a set of standard steels with restricted hardenability. In 1993, the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) adopted the twelve SAE restricted hardenability steels and added ten more. SAE decided to include in SAE J1868 the additional 10 steels. In general, steels with restricted hardenability (RH steels) will exhibit a hardness range not greater than 5 HRC at the initial position on the end-quench hardenability bar and not greater than 65% of the hardness range for standard H-band steels (see SAE J1268) in the "inflection" region. Generally the restricted hardenability band follows the middle of the corresponding standard H-band. An example of the RH band compared with the…
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Chemical Compositions of SAE Carbon Steels

Carbon and Alloy Steels Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J403_200912
  • Historical
Published 2009-12-07 by SAE International in United States
In 1941, the SAE Iron and Steel Division, in collaboration with the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI), made a major change in the method of expressing composition ranges for the SAE steels. The plan, as now applied, is based in general on narrower cast or heat analysis ranges plus certain product analysis allowances on individual samples, in place of the fixed ranges and limits without tolerances formerly provided for carbon and other elements in SAE steels. For years the variety of chemical compositions of steel has been a matter of concern in the steel industry. It was recognized that production of fewer grades of steel could result in improved deliveries and provide a better opportunity to achieve advances in technology, manufacturing practices, and quality, and thus develop more fully the possibilities of application inherent in those grades. Comprehensive and impartial studies were directed toward determining which of the many grades being specified were the ones in most common demand, and the feasibility of combining compositions having like requirements. From these studies, the most common…
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High-Strength Carbon and Alloy Die Drawn Steels

Carbon and Alloy Steels Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J935_200911
  • Current
Published 2009-11-24 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Recommended Practice is intended to provide basic information on properties and characteristics of high-strength carbon and alloy steels which have been subjected to special die drawing. This includes both cold drawing with heavier-than-normal drafts and die drawing at elevated temperatures.
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