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Assessment of the Inlet/Engine Total Temperature Distortion Problem

S-16 Turbine Engine Inlet Flow Distortion Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR5867
  • Current
Published 2017-11-21 by SAE International in United States
This report revises ARD50015 document to the AIR format. This report, as was the original, is intended to complement ARP1420C and AIR1419C documents issued by the SAE S-16 Committee on spatial total-pressure distortion. These previous documents addressed only total-pressure distortion and excluded total temperature distortion. The subject of inlet total temperature distortion is addressed in this report with some background and identification of the problem area. The status of past efforts is reviewed, and an attempt is made to define where we are today. Deficiencies, voids, and limitations in knowledge and test techniques for total temperature distortion are identified.
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Inlet Total-Pressure-Distortion Considerations for Gas-Turbine Engines

S-16 Turbine Engine Inlet Flow Distortion Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR1419C
  • Current
Published 2017-11-20 by SAE International in United States
This document addresses many of the significant issues associated with effects of inlet total-pressure distortion on turbine-engine performance and stability. It provides a review of the development of techniques used to assess engine stability margins in the presence of inlet total-pressure distortion. Specific performance and stability issues that are covered by this document include total-pressure recovery and turbulence effects and steady and dynamic inlet total-pressure distortion.
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A Methodology for Assessing Inlet Swirl Distortion

S-16 Turbine Engine Inlet Flow Distortion Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR5686
  • Current
Published 2017-07-31 by SAE International in United States
This Aerospace Information Report (AIR) addresses the subject of aircraft inlet-swirl distortion. A structured methodology for characterizing steady-state swirl distortion in terms of swirl descriptors and for correlating the swirl descriptors with loss in stability pressure ratio is presented. The methodology is to be considered in conjunction with other SAE inlet distortion methodologies. In particular, the combined effects of swirl and total-pressure distortion on stability margin are considered. However, dynamic swirl, i.e., time-variant swirl, is not considered. The implementation of the swirl assessment methodology is shown through both computational and experimental examples. Different types of swirl distortion encountered in various engine installations and operations are described, and case studies which highlight the impact of swirl on engine stability are provided. Supplemental material is included in the appendices. This AIR is issued to bring together information and ideas required to address the inlet-swirl problem for which common industry practice has yet to be established. This document should foster the tests and analyses necessary to mature the ideas proposed by the committee to a recommended practice. These…
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Gas Turbine Engine Inlet Flow Distortion Guidelines

S-16 Turbine Engine Inlet Flow Distortion Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • ARP1420C
  • Current
Published 2017-04-27 by SAE International in United States
The turbine-engine inlet flow distortion methodology addressed in this document applies only to the effects of inlet total-pressure distortion. Practices employed to quantify these effects continue to develop and, therefore, periodic updates are anticipated. The effects of other forms of distortion on flow stability and performance, and of any distortion on aeroelastic stability are not addressed. The guidelines can be used as necessary to create a development method to minimize the risk of inlet/engine compatibility problems. The degree to which guidelines for descriptor use, assessment techniques, and testing outlined in this document are applied to a specific program should be consistent with the expected severity of the compatibility problem.
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Distortion Synthesis/Estimation Techniques

S-16 Turbine Engine Inlet Flow Distortion Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR5826B
  • Current
Published 2017-03-21 by SAE International in United States
This document provides a review of published methods that have been used to provide estimates of the levels of distortion and/or the concomitant loss of stability pressure ratio that can occur when the recommended full complement of aerodynamic interface plane high-response instrumentation is not used when obtaining inlet data. The methods have been categorized based on the underlying mathematical representation of the aerophysics. Further, the use of maximum value statistics, which has been used to further improve the results where short-duration time records have been employed, is discussed.
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Distortion Synthesis/Estimation Techniques

S-16 Turbine Engine Inlet Flow Distortion Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR5826A
  • Historical
Published 2016-10-13 by SAE International in United States
This document provides a review of published methods that have been used to provide estimates of the levels of distortion and/or the concomitant loss of stability pressure ratio that can occur when the recommended full complement of aerodynamic interface plane high-response instrumentation is not used when obtaining inlet data. The methods have been categorized based on the underlying mathematical representation of the aerophysics. Further, the use of maximum value statistics, which has been used to further improve the results where short-duration time records have been employed, is discussed.
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Statistical Stability Assessment

S-16 Turbine Engine Inlet Flow Distortion Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR5656A
  • Current
Published 2016-03-16 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) provides a methodology for performing a statistical assessment of gas-turbine-engine stability-margin usage. Consideration is given to vehicle usage, fleet size, and environment to provide insight into the probability of encountering an in-service engine stall event. Current industry practices, such as ARP1420, supplemented by AIR1419, and engine thermodynamic models, are used to determine and quantify the contribution of individual stability threats. The statistical technique adopted by the S-16 committee for performing a statistical stability assessment is the Monte Carlo method (see Applicable References 1 and 2). While other techniques may be suitable, their application is beyond the scope of this document. The intent of the document is to present a methodology and process to construct a statistical-stability-assessment model for use on a specific system and its mission or application.
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Inlet/Engine Compatibility - From Model to Full Scale Development

S-16 Turbine Engine Inlet Flow Distortion Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR5687A
  • Current
Published 2016-02-16 by SAE International in United States
This document reviews the state of the art for data scaling issues associated with air induction system development for turbine-engine-powered aircraft. In particular, the document addresses issues with obtaining high quality aerodynamic data when testing inlets. These data are used in performance and inlet-engine compatibility analyses. Examples of such data are: inlet recovery, inlet turbulence, and steady-state and dynamic total-pressure inlet distortion indices. Achieving full-scale inlet/engine compatibility requires a deep understanding of three areas: 1) geometric scaling fidelity (referred to here as just “scaling”), 2) impact of Reynolds number, and 3) ground and flight-test techniques (including relevant environment simulation, data acquisition, and data reduction practices). The Model-to-Full Scale Subcommittee of the S-16 Turbine Engine Inlet Flow Distortion Committee has examined archives and has obtained recollections of experts regarding air induction system development experience to produce this document.
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Inlet Total-Pressure-Distortion Considerations for Gas-Turbine Engines

S-16 Turbine Engine Inlet Flow Distortion Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR1419B
  • Historical
Published 2013-05-28 by SAE International in United States
This document addresses many of the significant issues associated with effects of inlet total-pressure distortion on turbine-engine performance and stability. It provides a review of the development of techniques used to assess engine stability margins in the presence of inlet total-pressure distortion. Specific performance and stability issues that are covered by this document include total-pressure recovery and turbulence effects and steady and dynamic inlet total-pressure distortion.
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Inlet / Engine Compatibility – From Model to Full Scale Development

S-16 Turbine Engine Inlet Flow Distortion Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR5687
  • Historical
Published 2011-09-06 by SAE International in United States
This document reviews the state of the art for data scaling issues associated with air induction system development for turbine-engine-powered aircraft. In particular, the document addresses issues with obtaining high quality aerodynamic data when testing inlets. These data are used in performance and inlet-engine compatibility analyses. Examples of such data are: inlet recovery, inlet turbulence, and steady-state and dynamic total-pressure inlet distortion indices. Achieving full-scale inlet/engine compatibility requires a deep understanding of three areas: 1) geometric scaling fidelity (referred to here as just “scaling”), 2) impact of Reynolds number, and 3) ground and flight-test techniques (including relevant environment simulation, data acquisition, and data reduction practices). The Model-to-Full Scale Subcommittee of the S-16 Turbine Engine Inlet Flow Distortion Committee has examined archives and has obtained recollections of experts regarding air induction system development experience to produce this document.
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