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Unsettled Topics Concerning Automated Driving Systems and the Transportation Ecosystem

Florida Polytechnic University-Rahul Razdan
  • Research Report
  • EPR2019005
To be published on 2019-11-25 by SAE International in United States
Over the last 100 years, the automobile has become integrated in a fundamental way into the broader economy. A broad and deep ecosystem has emerged, and critical components of this ecosystem include insurance, after-market services, automobile retail sales, automobile lending, energy suppliers (e.g., gas stations), medical services, advertising, lawyers, banking, public planners, and law enforcement. These components – which together represent almost $2 trillion of the United State economy – are in equilibrium based on the current capabilities of automotive technology. However, the advent of autonomous vehicles (AVs) and technologies like electrification have the potential to significantly disrupt the automotive ecosystem. The critical cog governing the rate and pace of this shift is the management of the test and verification of AVs. In this SAE Edge report, six senior industry leaders in the impacted ecosystems essay articles which describes sectors of the current automotive ecosystem and the manner in which AV technology can potentially reshape them – providing a mosaic of the massive infrastructure shifts which will be required to absorb autonomous vehicle technologies. NOTE:…
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Unsettled Impacts of Integrating Automated Electric Vehicles into a Mobility-as-a-Service Ecosystem and Effects on Traditional Transportation and Ownership

International Transportation Innovation Center (ITIC)-Joachim Taiber
  • Research Report
  • EPR2019004
To be published on 2019-11-25 by SAE International in United States
The current business model of the automotive industry is based on individual car ownership, yet new ride sharing companies such as Uber and Lyft are well capitalized to invest in large, commercially operated, on-demand mobility service vehicle fleets. Car manufacturers like Tesla want to incorporate personal car owners into part time fleet operation by utilizing their commercial fleet service. These robotaxi-fleets can be operated profitably when the technology works in a reliable manner and regulators allow driverless operation. Although Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS) models of private and commercial vehicles fleets can complement public transportation models, they may contribute to lower public transportation ridership and thus higher subsidies per ride. This can lead to inefficiencies in the utilization of existing public transportation infrastructure. MaaS platforms can also cause a reduced reliance on parking infrastructure (e.g., street parking lanes and parking garages) which can contribute to an improvement in overall traffic flow and a reduction in capital investment for commercial and residential real estate development. Urban planning can be better centered around the true mobility needs of the citizens…
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Materials for DPF and its Cleaning Methodologies

ARAI Academy-Kamalkishore Vora, Kartik Gurnule
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2565
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Accumulation of ash in the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) with engine operating over the time is a major concern for all vehicle manufacturers, with BS VI and BS VII emission norms mandating the use of DPF. Ash deposition leads to increase in pressure drop across the filter and more frequent regeneration pattern, which can lead to sintering. It can hamper the capacity of soot loading, properties of DPF substrate material and can lower catalyst activity in case of Catalysed-DPF. Hence, removal of ash is important by defining the DPF cleaning methods. Primary source of ash is lubricant oil, taking part in the combustion. Lubricant additives like detergents and anti-wear agents are responsible for formation of metallic ash inside the DPF. Secondary source of metallic ash is fuel and engine wear out. The present paper elucidates the preparation of DPF samples including coating and canning of DPF substrates, with proper GBD. Pressure drop and weight with and without coating is estimated and validated through actual measurement of fresh as well as soot loaded samples. Soot loading…
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A Technical Review on Performance and Emissions of Compressed Natural Gas – Diesel Dual Fuel Engine

Indian Oil Corp., Ltd.-M. Muralidharan, M Subramanian
University of Petroleum and Energy Studies-Ajay Srivastava
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2390
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
In view of the depletion of energy and environmental pollution, dual fuel technology has caught the attention of researchers as a viable technology keeping in mind the increased availability of fuels like Compressed Natural Gas (CNG). It is an ecologically friendly technology due to lower PM and smoke emissions and retains the efficiency of diesel combustion. Generally, dual fuel technology has been prevalent for large engines like marine, locomotive and stationary engines. However, its use for automotive engines has been limited in the past due to constraints of the limited supply of alternative fuels. CNG is a practical fuel under dual-fuel mode operation, with varying degree of success. The induction method prevents a premixed natural gas-air mixture, minimizes the volumetric efficiency and results in a loss of power at higher speeds. Under lower engine operating temperatures, at low-intermediate loads, the NOx emissions reduces however HC and CO emissions are significantly increased. This paper reviews the performance and emissions of compressed natural gas (CNG) – diesel dual fuel engine.
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To establish the correlation in between Computer Aided Engineering & physical testing of automotive parts returnable case (Stacktainer).

International Centre for Automotive Technology-Ashish Singh
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2569
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Automotive returnable cases (Stacktainers) are being used to transport the automotive parts through surface & seaways. No automotive manufacturer wants to spend money on woods, paper & cardboard again and again, it`s better to pay once for robust & reusable cases. these provide better protection to parts from its manufacturing to assembly line of vehicle. While transporting, any kind of crack or failure of returnable cases may lead to loss of money, human & time. To ensure the safety, these pallets have to be validated for vibrations coming from surface irregularities, sea waves & load due to stacking of cases one above other. The objective of this study is to establish a correlation in between the physical testing & simulation in Computer added Engineering (CAE) of automotive returnable case (Stacktainers). There are different types of tests considered to validate the returnable case, rough road evaluation, Multi-axial Vibration & strength evaluation. After conducting the physical test & CAE simulation, a correlation & confidence level up to 90% is established.
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Location based emergency call enabler

Priyanka Marudhavanan, Sai Nadimpalli
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2457
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
M. Priyanka, Mahindra & Mahindra, India Sai Himaja Nadimpalli , Mahindra & Mahindra, India Keywords-Safety, Connectivity, GPS Research and/or Engineering Questions/Objective: There are many times the driver or co-passenger can experience emergency conditions whenever the vehicle is running or it is in static. These kind of situations are tough to handle even if one is victimized . The victim can be rescued on time if proper information about the situation would reach his friends or family . Limitations: In existing system, if the accidental crash happens then signal from airbag unit will wake up the mobile, Once this wake up call happens,it will activate the gsm module. The emergency contacts stored in the mobile will be dialed up and the victim can convey his emergency situation through that. The driver will be rescued only if crash happens. There is no system to rescue the driver if heart attack happens when he is driving. The additional problem which the system has is emergency contact is out of town,the victim will not be rescued Methodology: In order…
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Occupant Controlled Ventilation

Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Priyanka Marudhavanan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2461
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Keywords-Coolant,Ventilation Research and/or Engineering Questions/Objective: Number of Occupants is the major parameter when we consider Air Conditioning System. The number of person who stays in the room may vary in the same way the person who travels in the automobile also vary throughout the distance. This is more prevalent in transportation system like bus, train and where lot of people will travel together and where dropping station in the vehicle is too frequent.In this type,operating A.C has to be varied Methodology: . Instead the number count in the vehicle will be monitored from time to time. Based on the number of count, the cabin has to be cooled or heated and accordingly corresponding power has to be drawn by the compressor from the engine. This human count can be detected based on the number of CO2 sensor located in the cabin. the amount of fresh air that should be added to a cabin can be controlled by a carbon dioxide level transmitter. When CO2 levels go up, fresh air is added until the CO2 levels…
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Self-Sensing, Lightweight and High Modulus Carbon Nanotube Composites for Improved Efficiency and Safety of Electric Vehicles

NoPo Nanotechnologies India Pvt Ltd.-Gadhadar Changalaraya Reddy, Aparna Allannavar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2532
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Carbon Composites (CFRP) have been touted to be an essential component of future automobiles due to their mechanical properties and lightweight. CFRP has been adopted successfully for secondary and primary structures in Aerospace industry. In Automobiles, they are incorporated in models like the BMW i-series. CFRP suffers from 2 major problems. Delamination of Composites leads to catastrophic and rapid failure which could be dangerous in passenger vehicles. Delamination occurs whenever there is a shock on the composite. Secondly, Composites need regular expensive maintenance to ensure that the material is intact and will not compromise passenger safety. Carbon Nanotubes in composites have shown a substantial increase in delamination resistance. A 0.1wt% addition of HiPCO® Single-walled Carbon Nanotube provides both self-sensing and improved fracture resistance. Here we report results of our work with NoPo HiPCO® Nanotubes with small amounts of Iron. 6K Carbon fiber was used as the fiber reinforcement. NoPo HiPCO® Nanotubes were reinforced in the Epoxy system by sonication. HiPCO® Nanotubes were produced using standard parameters. The coupons of CENCE composite were made using VARTM…
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Engine Fuel Economy Optimization for different Hybrid Architectures using 1-D Simulation technique

Tafe Motors and Tractors Limited-Ajay Nain, Devendra Nene
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2496
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
In order to improve fuel economy of the 3.3 litre tractor model, various kinds of engine hybridization is studied. This paper presents a methodology to predict engine fuel consumption using 1-D software by coupling Ricardo Wave and Ricardo Ignite. Engine fuel consumption and emission maps are predicted using Ricardo WAVE. These maps are used as an input to IGNITE for predicting cumulative fuel consumption. There is good agreement within 10% deviation between simulated cumulative fuel consumption and experimental cumulative fuel consumption. Same calibrated model is used further for studying series hybridization, parallel P1 type and Parallel P2 type of hybridization. A design of experiment (DOE) model is run for different electric motor sizes, battery capacity and battery state of charge condition, to understand their effects on overall engine fuel consumption and cycle soot emission. Model predicts overall significant reduction in cumulative fuel consumption and soot emission. Lower soot emission will leads to smaller exhaust after-treatment size. There is trade-off between higher cost due to hybridization and lower cost due to lower after-treatment size. A cost…
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A Machine Learning based Multi-objective Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MMDO) for Lightweighting the Automotive Structures

Mahindra and Mahindra, Ltd.-Ranga Srinivas Gunti
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2424
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
The present work involves Machine Learning (ML) based Multi-objective Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MMDO) for lightweighting the automotive structures. The challenge in deployment of MMDO algorithms in solving real-world automotive structural design problems is the enormous time involved in solving full vehicle finite element models that involve large number of design variables and multiple performance constraints pertaining to vehicle dynamics, durability, crash and NVH domains. With the availability of powerful workstations and using the advanced Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) tools, it has become possible to generate huge sets of simulation data pertaining to multiple domains. In the present work, lightweigting of the vehicle structure is achieved, considered the vehicular hardpoint locations and the gages of the vehicle structures as the design variables and performance parameters pertaining to vehicle dynamics, structural durability, front-end intrusions during an IIHS offset impact test and the modal frequencies of few critical structural members as the constraint variables. Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) based algorithms were used for developing the predictive models of various performance parameters. The predictive models were then used to…