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Tire Side Force Characteristics with the Coupling Effect of Vertical Load and Inflation Pressure

China Automotive Technology and Research Center Co., Ltd., China-Fei Li
GAC Automotive Engineering Institute, China-Chao Yang
  • Journal Article
  • 10-03-01-0002
Published 2018-11-09 by SAE International in United States
The tire vertical load and inflation pressure have great influence on tire steady- and non-steady-state characteristics and, consequently, on the vehicle handling and stability. The objective of this article is to reveal the coupling effect of tire vertical load and inflation pressure on tire characteristics and then introduce an improved UniTire side force model including such coupling effect through experimental and theoretical analysis. First, the influence of the tire vertical load and inflation pressure on the tire characteristics is presented through experimental analysis. Second, the theoretical tire cornering stiffness and lateral relaxation length model are introduced to study the underlying mechanism of the coupling effect. Then, an improved UniTire side force model including the coupling effect of tire vertical load and inflation pressure is derived. Finally, the proposed improved UniTire side force model is validated through tire steady-state and transient data. The coupling effect of tire vertical load and inflation pressure on tire cornering stiffness and lateral relaxation length is decided by the variation of the half length of tire contact patch and the carcass…
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Low-Temperature Coolant Circuit Nomenclature and Applications

Cooling Systems Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J3136_201811
  • Current
Published 2018-11-08 by SAE International in United States

The document provides clarity related to multiple temperature coolant circuits used in on- and off-highway, gasoline, and light- to heavy-duty diesel engine cooling systems.

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Direct Versus Indirect Acting Piezoelectric CR Injectors: Comparison of Hydraulic Performance, Pollutant Emissions, Combustion Noise, and Fuel Consumption

Stefano d'Ambrosio, Alessandro Ferrari
  • Journal Article
  • 03-11-05-0040
Published 2018-11-08 by SAE International in United States
A comprehensive comparison between a direct acting and an indirect acting piezoelectric injector has been carried out both at the hydraulic rig and at the dynamometer cell. The working principle of these injector typologies is illustrated, and their hydraulic performance has been analyzed and discussed on the basis of experimental data collected at a hydraulic test rig. The injector characteristics, nozzle opening and closure delays, injector leakages, injected flow-rate profiles, injector-to-injector variability in the injected mass, injected volume fluctuations with the dwell time (DT), and minimum DT for fusion-free multiple injections have been compared in order to evaluate the impact of the injector driving system on the injection apparatus performance. The direct acting and indirect acting piezoelectric injectors have been installed on a Euro 5 diesel engine, which has been tested at a dynamometer cell. Optimized double and triple injection strategies have been considered at some representative key points of the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). Experimental data on engine-out emissions, brake-specific fuel consumption (bsfc), and combustion noise (CN) are presented and discussed with the…
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Magnesium Alloy, Sheet and Plate 3.0Al - 1.0Zn – 0.20Mn (AZ31B-H24) Cold Rolled, Partially Annealed

AMS D Nonferrous Alloys Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS4377J
  • Current
Published 2018-11-08 by SAE International in United States
This specification covers a magnesium alloy in the form of sheet and plate.
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Magnesium Alloy, Plate, Extra Flat 3.0Al – 1.0Zn – 0.20Mn (AZ31B-0) Annealed

AMS D Nonferrous Alloys Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS4382D
  • Current
Published 2018-11-08 by SAE International in United States
This specification covers a magnesium alloy in the form of plate.
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Titanium Alloy Sheet, Strip, and Plate, 6Al - 4V, Solution Heat Treated and Aged

AMS G Titanium and Refractory Metals Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS4904D
  • Current
Published 2018-11-08 by SAE International in United States

This specification covers a titanium alloy in the form of sheet, strip, and plate up through 2.000 inches (50.80 mm), inclusive.

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Rings, Flash Welded Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys

AMS D Nonferrous Alloys Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS7488F
  • Current
Published 2018-11-08 by SAE International in United States
This specification covers flash welded rings made of aluminum and aluminum alloys.
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Plate, Magnesium Alloy 3.0Al - 1.0Zn - 0.20Mn (AZ31B-H26) Cold Rolled and Partially Annealed

AMS D Nonferrous Alloys Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS4376H
  • Current
Published 2018-11-07 by SAE International in United States
This specification covers a magnesium alloy in the form of plate.
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A Study on Lightweight Design of Automotive Front Rails Using Tailored Blanks by Nonlinear Structural Optimization

AK Steel Corporation, USA-Jianyong Liang, Jonathan Powers, Scott Stevens
  • Journal Article
  • 05-12-01-0002
Published 2018-11-07 by SAE International in United States
Tailored blanks offer great lightweighting opportunities for automotive industry and were applied on the front rails of a sedan in this research. To achieve the most efficient material usage, all the front rail parts were tailored into multiple sheets with the gauge of each sheet defined as a design variable for optimization. The equivalent static loads (ESL) method was adopted for linear optimization and the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) moderate overlap frontal crash as the nonlinear analysis load case. The torsion and bending stiffness of the sedan body in white (BIW) were set as design constraints. The occupant compartment intrusion in IIHS moderate overlap front crash was set as design objective to be minimized. The optimal thickness configuration for the tailored front rail designs was obtained through ESL optimization for multiple mass saving targets. The optimal thickness configuration for tailored front rails was updated in full vehicle crash model, and IIHS moderate overlap frontal crash analysis was conducted again to validate the results from ESL optimization. The section force and crash energy absorption…
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Definition of Commonly Used Day Types (Atmospheric Ambient Temperature Characteristics Versus Pressure Altitude)

S-15 Gas Turbine Perf Simulation Nomenclature and Interfaces
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS210
  • Current
Published 2018-11-07 by SAE International in United States
“Hot Day”, “Tropical Day”, “Standard Day”, “Polar Day”, and “Cold Day” are part of the lexicon of the aircraft industry. These terms are generally understood to refer to specific, generally accepted characteristics of atmospheric temperature versus pressure altitude. There are also other, less well-known days, defined by their frequency of occurrence, such as “1% Hot Day”, “10% Cold Day”, or “Highest Recorded Day”. These temperature characteristics have their origins in multiple sources, including U.S. military specifications which are no longer in force.
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