Turbocharging Internal Combustion Engines

The need to control emissions and maintain fuel economy is driving the use of advanced turbocharging technology in both diesel and gasoline engines. As the use of diesel engines in passenger car gasoline and diesel engines increases, a greater focus on advanced turbocharging technology is emerging in an effort to reap the benefits obtained from turbocharging and engine downsizing.

This seminar covers the basic concepts of turbocharging of gasoline and diesel engines (light and heavy duty), including turbocharger matching and charge air and EGR cooling, as well as associated controls. The limitations and future possibilities of today's systems will be covered, as well as details on how emerging technologies will impact engine/vehicle performance. The seminar's primary focus is on the turbocharger-engine interface (subjects such as matching, benefits, limitations, and new technologies) rather than detailed turbocharger aerodynamics and design. Advanced technologies such as variable geometry and multi-stage turbocharging, high and low pressure loop EGR systems, assisted turbocharging and turbocompounding are discussed. Students will have the opportunity to perform hands-on exercises to gain an appreciation of parametric effects in a wide range of engines.

**Participants are expected to bring a laptop computer, with Excel, to the seminar for class exercises.

What Will You Learn

By attending this seminar, you will be able to:
  • Describe the thermodynamic principles governing the turbocharging of internal combustion engines
  • Articulate the critical contribution of turbocharging to modern day diesel engine performance and emission control
  • Determine the possible benefits of turbocharging for specific gasoline and heavy and light duty diesel engine applications
  • Estimate the appropriate turbocharger characteristics for specific applications based on engine system requirements
  • Describe the limitations of current technologies and evaluate new technologies and their possible role in meeting future engine/vehicle system challenges
  • Apply the basic principles of matching turbocharger with engine and optimizing overall system for desired performance and emissions

Is This Course For You

This seminar is designed for engineers, managers, and other technical personnel from OEM and support industries concerned with the design and development of optimized diesel and spark ignition engine systems, including performance, fuel economy and emissions for passenger car, light truck and heavy duty engines. Some background in thermodynamics, IC engine performance and emissions will be helpful. Individuals who need more background should consider attending Diesel Engine Technology (PD730812) or The Basics of Internal Combustion Engines (ID# C0103) or on demand course.

Materials Provided

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Course Requirements

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  • Engine-Turbocharger Basics
    • Overview
    • Impact of charge density
    • Pumping loop and thermodynamics effects
    • Gas exchange/air flow and performance characteristics -- Engine; Turbocharger; Engine/turbocharger interaction
  • Turbocharger Design Features
    • Overview
    • Compressor side components and features
    • Turbine side components and features
    • Other significant turbocharger design requirements
    • Charge and EGR cooler features
    • Durability - thermal stress, materials, high and low cycle fatigue
    • Cooling, bearings, lubrication and sealing
    • Noise considerations
  • Free-floating, Wastegate, Variable Area or Variable Geometry Turbochargers and Controls
  • Compressor and Turbine Aerodynamics
    • Aerodynamic design features
    • Figures of merit for aero performance
    • Performance maps and their impact on engine characteristics
    • Methodology to evaluate the performance of compressors and turbines
  • Engine Air and EGR Flow Requirements
    • Power density and efficiency considerations
    • Emissions control considerations
  • Turbocharger Matching
    • Matching principles with and without EGR
    • Single and multi-stage turbo matching
  • Turbocharger Selection Based on Engine System Requirement
  • Transient Response Considerations
  • Basic Spreadsheet Tools for Engine and Turbocharger Parametric Explorations
    • Hands-on exercises for turbocharger and engine performance calculations
    • Hands-on parametric studies using simple calculation tools
  • Impact of Turbocharging on Gasoline and Diesel Engine Performance and Emissions
  • Charge (Air and EGR) Cooling Systems
  • Advanced Concepts in Turbocharging including Design Features of Advanced Concepts
    • Advanced versions of variable geometry turbocharging
    • High temperature and high strength materials
    • Two-stage turbocharging, series, parallel and sequential
    • Exhaust gas recirculation systems to minimize impact on efficiency
    • Turbocompounding
    • Electrically (and hydraulically) assisted turbocharging
    • Impact on emissions control in diesel and gasoline engines
    • Cold start emissions issues, catalyst temperature for diesel and gasoline
    • Turbocharger response issues