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Description and Performance of the Hybrid Iii Three-Year-Old, Six-Year-Old, and Small Female Crash Test Dummies in Restraint System and Out-Of-Position Air Bag Environments
Published May 31, 1998 by National Highway Traffic Safety Administration in United States
With the introduction of air bags coming into the market at a brisk pace, and foreseeing the need for assessing the safety benefits of the air bag for all sizes of vehicle occupants, the Center for Disease Control (CDC) awarded in 1987 a contract to the Ohio State University under the title "Development for Multisized Hybrid III-Based Dummy Family." At the time the funding covered only the development of a small female and a large male dummies. Recognizing the need for dummies with improved biofidelity and extended measuring capability and capacity to evaluate the safety of children, CDC provided additional funding in 1989 to develop a design foundation for the Hybrid III-type, child-size dummies. To support this work, the Ohio State University asked the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) to form an appropriate working group that would provide advice and guidance from the automotive perspective. The SAE, through its Hybrid III Dummy Family Task Group and later, also through the Dummy Testing Equipment Subcommittee, has continued the development work since then, resulting in the construction of prototype Hybrid III-type 5th percentile female, 95th percentile male, six-year-old, three-year-old, and CRABI 12-month-old dummies.
In 1997, NHTSA, in cooperation with the appropriate technical committees of SAE, initiated an evaluation program for the prototype Hybrid III dummies prior to proposing them for incorporation into Part 572 as regulated test devices. This paper provides highlights of the Agency program which was used to evaluate the Hybrid III three-year-old and six-year-old child dummies and the 5th percentile female dummy for their sufficiency as measurement devices. It includes detailed anthropometry, biofidelity responses, and performance data for out-of-position static air bag tests and dynamic sled tests. Similar evaluations for the 95th percentile male and the CRABI 12-month-old are forthcoming.
To assess biofidelity, component tests were conducted with the head, neck, and thorax of each dummy. The component test responses were then compared to the appropriate biofidelity corridors which represent estimated typical human responses to similar test conditions. Given the absence of sufficient data for the three- and six-year-old children, and the 5th percentile female, the biofidelity corridors were developed by applying the appropriate mass distribution and geometric scaling factors to the H-III 50M corridors.
When evaluating biofidelity, one must consider the limitations imposed by the mechanical nature of the dummy. For example, the biofidelity requirements must be balanced with the equally important qualifications that the dummy be durable and that its responses are repeatable. These requirements make it necessary to construct the dummy from engineering materials which can withstand repeated impacts of high energy, whereas the human body, consisting of frangible bones and soft tissue, cannot endure frequent exposures of this destructive nature. Given these limitations, it is not reasonable to expect that the dummies' responses can be tuned to fit perfectly within the biofidelity corridors. For the purposes of this evaluation, biofidelity has been deemed acceptable when the following subjective criteria have been met: (1) the area under the curve of the dummy's response is reasonably similar to that of the biofidelity corridor; (2) the hysteresis properties of the dummy's response are reasonably similar to those of the biofidelity corridor; (3) the maximum points of interest (force, deflection, rotation, etc.) are within the biofidelity corridor.
Each section to follow describes the features of the dummy, the instrumentation capability, the biofidelity responses of the major components, and key results of out-of-position and sled tests. All data presented in this paper conforms to SAE J-211 requirements for both filtering and sign convention.
- Heather Hallenbeck - Transportation Research Center Inc.
- Dan Rhule - Transportation Research Center Inc.
- Roger A. Saul - National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
- Howard B. Pritz - National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
- Joseph McFadden - National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
- Stanley H. Backaitis - National Highway Traffic Safety Administration