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Pilot Study of Accident Scenarios on a Driving Simulator
Published May 31, 1998 by National Highway Traffic Safety Administration in United States
This paper presents a pilot experimental study carried out by the Laboratory of Accidentology and Biomechanics PSA Peugeot Citroën - RENAULT (LAB) and the European Center of Safety Studies and Risk Analysis (CEESAR) on the RENAULT ESTER motionless driving simulator. Sixty-eight drivers were exposed to a dangerous situation in which another car failed to stop at an intersection. Three distinct configurations were tested: vehicle coming from the right either at a constant speed or decelerating, or stationary vehicle moving-off from the left. Kinematic data and a video presenting the driver''s face and the field of view were recorded. After the driving session, drivers were interviewed by a psychologist of in-depth accident investigation teams in order to analyze their interpretation of the situation.
The analysis carried out is based on a comparison of the behavior (perceptions, interpretations, actions) of drivers who avoided the accident with the behavior of those who crashed. It points out different kinds of difficulties according to the configuration: problems of perception (angular limitations), anticipation (no anticipation of the possible motion of the adverse vehicle) or interpretation (incorrect estimation of the danger level). It provides a basis for the determination of avoidance strategies and the design of active crash avoidance systems (intelligent collision avoidance systems as well as active braking boosters) with the specification (triggering threshold) and efficiency assessment of such systems. This study also provides data for accident reconstruction (e.g., reaction time in accident situations, motion perception threshold...).