This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Comparison of the Effects of Various Fuel Additives on the Diesel Engine Emissions
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published October 19, 1998 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
The diesel engine in the past few years has improved its market sharing because the new engine technology has reduced the emissions and the diesel engine has relatively cheaper power cost. Nevertheless, in order to meet more restricted emission standards, the NOx, CO, HC, and particulate emissions must be further reduced. Thus, this study will explore the possible fuel additive technology to further reduce the emissions from the diesel engine.
In this study the fuel additives EHN, DTBP, MTBE, DMC, Diglyme, Monoglyme, and Ethanol are added into the diesel fuel with two different dosages. These additives are classified into four categories. It is well believed that the fuel cetane number improver such as DTBP (di-t-butyl peroxide) or EHN (2-ethylhexyl nitrate) can increase the fuel cetane number and thus reduce the emission level. As well as the cetane number booster, the fuel oxygenate such as MTBE or DMC which changes the oxygen composition in the fuel-air mixture can also reduce the emissions. The deposit cleaner fuel additives can substantially reduce the particulate emission due to deposit cleanup effect. The diesel engine combustion improver can accelerate the fuel evaporation and the fuel-air mixing rate so that the emission level can be reduced.
Results show that the fuel additives can have substantial effects on the engine's fuel spray penetration, fuel-air mixing processes, ignition delay, chemical reaction rates, and total heat release. Certain additives have positive effects on the reduction of exhaust emissions; however, it is not necessary that the effects are all positive and significant on every emissions (Temperature, NOx, HC, and Smoke). It is not guaranteed that all these seven additives can reduce the emission concentrations, because there are certain testing results show the opposite trend in this study. Because it is not necessary that further increase of additive dosage will promote the reduction of the emission levels, there might be an optimized dosage for a specific fuel additive to bring down the emission levels.
CitationShih, L., "Comparison of the Effects of Various Fuel Additives on the Diesel Engine Emissions," SAE Technical Paper 982573, 1998, https://doi.org/10.4271/982573.
- Lipkea, W. H., Johnson, J. H., Vuk, C. T., “The Physical and Chemical Character of Diesel Particulate Emissions- Measurement Techniques and Fundamental Considerations”, SAE Paper No.780108, USA.
- Arcoumaris, C. Megaritis, A., 1992, “Real Time Measurement of Particulate Emissions in a Turbocharged DI Diesel Engine,” SAE Paper No. 922390.
- Haynes, B. S., Wagner, H, G., 1981, “Soot Formation”, Progress Energy Combustion Science, Vol.7, pp. 229-273.
- Kittleson, D. B.; etc., 1994, “Influence of a Fuel Additive on the Performance and Emissions of a Medium-Duty Diesel Engine,” SAE Paper Number No. 941015.
- Caprotti, R.; Fowler, W. J.; Lepperhoff, G.; and Houben, M., 1993, “Diesel Additive Technology Effects of Injector Hole Erosion /Corrosion, Injector Fouling and Particulate Traps,” SAE Paper No. 932739.
- Claar, K.; Blythe, G.; and Pochiki, S., 1993, “Diesel Fuel Properties and Additives Effect one DI injector deposit Formation,” SAE Paper No. 932738.
- Cprotti, C.; Bertoli, N. Bel Giacoms; and Iorio B., 1992, “Control of Regulated Emissions with Additive Technology in Base Diesel Fuel of Varying Quality,” 2nd international Conference on Fluid-mechanics, Combustion Emissions and Reliability in Reciprocating Engines, Capri, Italy.
- Herbstman, S.; and Virk, K., 1991, “Use of Dispersants/Detergents in Diesel Injector Keep Clean and Clean Up Studies,” SAE Paper No. 912330.
- Virk, K.; Herbstman, S.; and Rawdon, M., 1991, “Development of Direct Injection Diesel Engine Injector Keep Clean and Clean Up Tests,” SAE Paper No. 912329.
- Bertotoli, C. Del Giacomo N.; Cprotti, R.; Smith, A. K.; and Phil, D., 1993, “The Influence of Automotive Diesel Back End Volatility and New Fuel Additive Technology on Regulated Emissions,” Institute of Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 207.
- Filowitz, M.; and Vataru, M., 1989, “Diesel Particulate Emission Control without Engine Modifications - A Cost Effective Fuel Supplement,” SAE Paper No. 890828.
- Kittleson, D. B.; Ambs, J. L.; and Hadjkacem, H., 1991, “Particulate Emissions from Diesel Engines: Influence of In-Cylinder Surface,” SAE Transactions, Vol. 99, Sec. 3, SAE Paper No. 900645.
- Balagurunathan, K, Nedunchezian, N, Rao, P. S., and Ganesan, V., “Control of NOx and Smoke in a Direct Injection Diesel Engine Using Methanol Diesel Emulsion as Fuel”,1994
- Kajitani, S.; Usisaki, H.; etc., 1994, “MTBE for Improved Diesel Combustion and Emissions?” SAE Transactions, SAE paper No. 941688.
- Samulski, M. J., 1994, “Sensitivity of Test Cycle and Fuel Type on a Spark-Ignition Four -Stroke Inboard Marine Engine,” SAE Paper No. 941728.
- Mayotte, S. C.; Lindhjem, C. E.; etc., 1994, “Reformulated Gasoline Effects on Exhaust Emissions: Phase I: Initial Investigation of Oxygenate, Volatility Distillation and Sulfur Effects,” SAE Paper No. 941973.
- Mayotte, S.C.; Lindhjem, C. E.; etc., 1994, “Reformulated Gasoline Effects on Exhaust Emissions: Phase I: Continued Investigation of the Effect of Fuel Oxygenate Content, Oxygenate Type, Volatility, Sulfur, Olefins, and Distillation Parameters,”SAE Paper No. 941974.
- Li, H.; Prabhu, S. K.; Miller, D.; and Cernansky, N., 1994, “The Effects of Octane Enhancing Ethers on the Reactivity of a Primary Reference Fuel Blend in a Motored Engine,” SAE Paper No. 940478.
- Nandi, M. K.; Jacobs, D. C.; etc., 1994, “The Performance of a Peroxide-Based Cetane Improvement Additive in Different Diesel Fuels,” SAE Paper No. 942019.
- Cowley, L.T.; Le Jeuen, A.; Lange, W. W., 1993, “The Effect of Fuel Composition Including Aromatics Content on Emissions From a Range of Heavy Duty Diesel Engines,” Coordinate European Council Paper CEC/93/EF 03.
- Kesling, H. S.; Liotta, F. J.; Nandi, M. K.. 1994, “The Thermal Stability of a Peroxide-Based Cetane Improvement Additive,” SAE Paper No. 941017.
- McCarthy, C. L.; Slodowske, W. J.; Siencki, E. J.; Jass, R. E., 1993, “Fuel Reformulation, pp. 34.
- Bowman, C. T., 1975, “Kinetics of Pollutant Formation and Destruction in Combustion,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci., Vol.1, pp. 33-45.
- Lavoie, G. A., 1978, “Correlation of Combustion Data for SI Engine Calculations - Laminar Flame Speed, Quench Distance and Global Reaction Rates,” SAE Paper No. 780220, USA.
- Smith, O., 1981, “Fundamentals of Soot Formation in Flames With Application to Diesel Engine Particulate Emissions,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci., Vol.7, pp. 275-291.
- Park, C., and Appleton, J. P., 1973, “Shock-Tube Measurement of Soot Oxidation Rates,” Combustion and Flame, Vol.20, pp. 369-379.
- California Analytical Instruments, INC., Model 300/240 CLD Instruction Manual.
- Abbass, M. K.; Andrens, G. E.; Williams, P. T.; and Bartle, K. D., 1989,“Diesel Particulate Composition Changes Along on Air Cooled Exhaust Pipe and Dilution Tunnel,” SAE Paper No. 890789, USA.
- Shih, L. K.; and Assanis, D. N., 1991,“Implementation of a Fuel Spray Wall Interaction Model in KIVA-II,” SAE Paper No. 911787, SAE Transaction, USA.
- Shih, L. K.; and Assanis, D. N., 1994,“Effect of Ring Dynamics and Crevice Flows on Unburned Hydrocarbon Emissions,” Transactions of the ASME, Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, October, pp. 784-792, USA.