This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
A Low Cost PC Based Driving Simulator for Prototyping and Hardware-In-The-Loop Applications
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published February 23, 1998 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
This paper describes a low cost, PC based driving simulation that includes a complete vehicle dynamics model (VDM), photo realistic visual display, torque feedback for steering feel and realistic sound generation. The VDM runs in real-time on Intel based PCs. The model, referred to as VDANL (Vehicle Dynamics Analysis, Non-Linear) has been developed and validated for a range of vehicles over the last decade and has been previously used for computer simulation analysis. The model's lateral and longitudinal dynamics have 17 degrees of freedom for a single unit vehicle and 33 degrees of freedom for an articulated vehicle. The model also includes a complete drive train including engine, transmission and front and rear drive differentials, and complete, power assisted braking and steering systems. A comprehensive tire model (STIREMOD) generates lateral and longitudinal forces and aligning torque based on normal load, camber angle and horizontal (lateral and longitudinal) slip. The tire model correctly simulates saturation and can represent off-road behavior including plowing in soft soil at high sideslip angles. The articulated vehicle can simulate tractor/trailer rigs, articulated buses and recreational/utility trailer setups.
The visual system image generator (IG) is composed of a high speed graphics accelerator and Intel Pentium processor. The IG is capable of 800x600-pixel resolution, and three screens can be combined to give up to a 135-degree field of view. A head-mounted display can also be used to give an unlimited field of view. The visual scene rendering includes full texturing, Goraud shading, and dynamic lighting effects. The update rate is 30-60 Hz depending on scene complexity, and the IG can render at a rate of 1 million polygons/second. The time delay for display presentation is less than 100 msec., which presents minimal interference with driver closed loop control. Tire model aligning torque and a steering system model are used to compute steering torque commands which are then displayed to the driver with a torque motor applied to the simulator steering column
The simulator VDM provides all outputs needed for driver cueing, including inertial outputs for commanding the IG, steering torque commands, various instrument commands, and auditory feedback. This paper summarizes the basic IG and VDM, means for generating and presenting cueing feedback to the driver, and a unique approach for easily creating and presenting driving scenarios. Several PC based driving simulation applications are also described, including a hardware-in-the-loop steering simulation, and desk top and cab simulations for use in research, rehabilitation, training and prototyping.
- R. Wade Allen - Systems Technology, Inc.
- Theodore J. Rosenthal - Systems Technology, Inc.
- Bimal L. Aponso - Systems Technology, Inc.
- David H. Klyde - Systems Technology, Inc.
- Fritz G. Anderson - Systems Technology, Inc.
- Jeffrey R. Hogue - Systems Technology, Inc.
- Jeffrey P. Chrstos - JPC Engineering
CitationAllen, R., Rosenthal, T., Aponso, B., Klyde, D. et al., "A Low Cost PC Based Driving Simulator for Prototyping and Hardware-In-The-Loop Applications," SAE Technical Paper 980222, 1998, https://doi.org/10.4271/980222.
- Allen, R. W., Rosenthal, T. J., et al., Analytical Modeling of Driver Response in Crash Avoidance Maneuvering, NHTSA/DOT-HS-807-270, April 1988.
- Allen, R. W., et al., Szostak, H. T., et al., Vehicle Dynamic Stability and Rollover, NHTSA/DOT HS 807 956, June 1992.
- Chrstos, J. P. and Heydinger, G. J., “Evaluation of NHTSA Light Vehicle Handling Simulations,” NHTSA Final Report No. DOT-HS-807-868, 1992.
- Bernard, J. E., et al., “Evaluation of Select Vehicle Dynamics Models - Phase II Final Report,” Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association Contract 9114-C11302, 1992.
- Chrstos, J. P. and Heydinger, G. J., “Evaluation of VDANL and VDM RoAD for Predicting the Vehicle Dynamics of a 1994 Ford Taurus,” SAE Paper No. 970566, Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA.
- Allen, R. W. and Rosenthal, T. J., “Requirements for Vehicle Dynamics Simulation Models,” SAE Paper 940175, presented at the International Congress and Exposition, Detroit, MI, February 28-March, 3 1994.
- Allen, R. W., Magdaleno, R. E., et al., “Tire Modeling Requirements for Vehicle Dynamics Simulation,” SAE Paper 950312, presented at SAE Congress January 1995.
- Allen, R. W., et al., “Steady State and Transient Analysis of Ground Vehicle Handling,” Automotive Crash Avoidance Research, SAE SP-699, pp.49-78, 1987 International Congress and Exposition, Detroit, Mi. February 23-27, 1987, (also in 1987 SAE Trans.)SAE Paper No. 870495, Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA.
- Allen, R. W., Rosenthal, T. J. and Chrstos, J. P., “A Vehicle Dynamics Tire Model for Both Pavement and Off-Road Conditions,” SAE Paper No. 970559, Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA, December 1996.
- Bernard, J. E. and Clover, C. L., “Tire Modeling for Low-Speed and High-Speed Calculations,” SAE Paper No. 950311, Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA.
- Heffley, R. K., “Aerodynamics of Passenger Vehicles in Close Proximity to Trucks and Buses,” SAE Paper 730235, Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA.
- Hogue, J. R., “Aerodynamics of Six Passenger Vehicles Obtained from Full Scale Wind Tunnel Tests,” SAE Paper No. 800142, Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA. February 1980.
- Weir, D. H., Strange, J. F. and Heffley, R. K., Reduction of Adverse Aerodynamic Effects of Large Trucks, Vol. I: Technical Report, Report No. FHWA-RD-79-84, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, September 1978.
- Cooper, K. R., Mason, W. T. and Bettes, W. H., “Correlation Experience with the SAE Wind Tunnel Test Procedure for Trucks and Buses,” SAE Paper 820375, published in SAE SP-515, Automotive Wind Tunnel Design, Test Results and Correlations, Society for Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA, February 1982.
- Jex, H. R. et al., “Comprehensive Measurements of Ride of In-Service Trucks,” SAE Paper No. 810045, Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA, February 1981.
- Johnson, W. A., et al., “A Downhill Grade Severity Rating System,” SAE Paper No. 811263, Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA, November 1981.
- Allen, R. W., et al., “Low-Cost Ground Vehicle Simulators for Research and Training,” Systems Technology, Inc., Paper 296, presented at the Transportation Research Board Meeting, Washington, D. C., January 1982.
- “Applications of Low-Cost Driving Simulation,” Driving Simulation Conference, DSC' 95, Sophia Antipolis, France, September. 12-13, 1995.
- Allen, R. W., “Computational Considerations in Real-Time Simulation Computer Graphics,” Systems Technology, Inc., paper 341, presented at Computer Graphics '84, Anaheim, CA, May 1984,.
- “Survey: Low-Cost 3-D Graphics Accelerators,” Real-Time Graphics Newsletter published by Computer Graphics Systems Development Corp. vol. 5 no. 9, April/May 1997.
- Allen, R. W. and Rosenthal T. J., “Meeting Important Cueing Requirements with Modest, Real-Time Interactive Driving Simulations”, SAE Paper 94-0228, (SP 1016), Society of Automotiave Engineers, Warrendale, PA, February 1994.
- Hogue, J. R., and Allen R. W., “Virtual Reality Simulation in Parachute Flight Training,” AIAA Paper No. 97-1454, presented at the 14th Aerodynamic Decelerator, Systems Technology Conference, San Francisco, 1997.