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Methodological Framework for Primary Automotive Safety: System Safety Approach for the Determination of Critical Scenarios
Published May 13, 1996 by National Highway Traffic Safety Administration in United States
The purpose of the research presented in this paper is to provide a methodological framework for primary automotive safety. The methodology proposed is based on a systemic approach of driving and follows the principles of System Safety Analysis. The paper first covers the general concepts involved in the approach. A Generic Driving Model is proposed and the notions of Operating Range and Accident Mechanism are explained. An Accident Typology and a Classification of Safety Systems are provided on the basis of these notions.
A method for the Determination of Critical Scenarios encountered in automotive driving is then proposed. This method first requires a qualitative modeling of the operation of the driver-vehicle system in a given driving phase. The different possible failures are then deduced from this model which leads to a Qualitative Failure Model. Finally, the malfunction probabilities must be quantified using In-Depth Accident Investigations and Driving Simulator Experiments. The Quantified Malfunction Model obtained can be used for Specification and Probabilistic Safety Assessment of crash avoidance systems.