This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Mixture Preparation During Cranking in a Port-Injected 4-Valve SI Engine
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published October 01, 1997 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation of the fuel-air mixing process in a port-fuel-injected, 4-valve, spark-ignited engine that was motored to simulate cold cranking and start-up conditions. An infrared fiber-optic instrumented spark plug probe was used to measure the local, crank angle resolved, fuel concentration in the vicinity of the spark gap of a single-cylinder research engine with a production head and fuel injector. The crank-angle resolved fuel concentrations were compared for various injection timings including open-intake-valve (OIV) and closed-intake-valve (CIV) injection, using federal certification gasoline. In addition, the effects of speed, intake manifold pressure, and injected fuel mass were examined. It was observed that CIV injection results in lower fuel concentrations near the spark gap during the early portion of the intake stroke relative to OIV injection, but results in essentially the same local fuel concentration at TDC of compression. This may mean either that there is significant charge stratification with OIV or that the amount of liquid fuel that remains on the port and cylinder surfaces at TDC of compression is essentially the same for the two cases. Lower intake manifold pressures were found to strongly promote fuel vaporization in the intake port and cylinder, but speed has little effect.
CitationKoenig, M., Stanglmaier, R., Hall, M., and Matthews, R., "Mixture Preparation During Cranking in a Port-Injected 4-Valve SI Engine," SAE Technical Paper 972982, 1997, https://doi.org/10.4271/972982.
- Alkidas, A. C. 1994 “The Effects of Fuel Preparation on Hydrocarbon Emissions of a S.I. Engine Operating Under Steady-State Conditions” SAE Paper 941959
- Yang, J. Kaiser E. W. Siegl W. O. Anderson R. W. 1993 “Effects of Port-Injection Timing and Fuel Droplet Size on Total and Speciated Exhaust Hydrocarbon Emissions” SAE Paper 930711
- Henein, N. A. Tagomori M. K. Yassine M. K. Asmus T. W. Thomas C. P. Hartman P. G. 1995 “Cycle-by-Cycle Analysis of HC Emissions During Cold Start of Gasoline Engines” SAE Paper 952402
- Sampson, M. J. Heywood J. B. 1995 “Analysis of Fuel Behavior in the Spark-Ignition Engine Start-Up Process” SAE Paper 950678
- Takeda, K. Yaegashi T. Sekiguchi K. Saito K. Imatake N. 1995 “Mixture Preparation and HC Emissions of a 4-valve Engine With Port Injection during Cold Starting and Warm-up” SAE Paper 950074
- Stanglmaier, R. H. Hall M. J. Matthews R. D. 1997 “In-Cylinder Fuel Transport During the First Cranking Cycles in a Port Injected 4-Valve Engine” SAE Paper 970043
- Kelly-Zion, P. Styron J. Lee C. Lucht R. Peters J. White R. 1997 “In-Cylinder Measurements of Liquid Fuel During the Intake Stroke of a Port-Injected Spark Ignition Engine” SAE Paper 972945
- Morishima R. Asai K. 1992 “Mixture Strength at Cranking Cycles of Gasoline Engine Starting” SAE Paper 920235
- Shayler, P. J. Isaacs R. M. Ma T. H. 1992 “The Variation of In-cylinder Mixture Ratios During Engine Cranking at Low Ambient Temperatures” Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers (IMechE) Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering 206 D1 55 62
- Winkelhofer, E. Fraidl G. K. Plimon A. 1992 “Monitoring of Gasoline Fuel Distribution in a Research Engine” Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers (IMechE) Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering 206 D2 107 115
- zur Loye, A. O. “A Software-Based Controller for Generation of Synchronized Pulses for Use with Rotating Machinery” Sandia National Laboratories Unlimited Release SAND89-8247 1989
- Hall, M. J. Koenig M. 1996 “A Fiber Optic Probe to Measure Pre-Combustion In-Cylinder Fuel-Air Ratio Fluctuations in Production Engines” Proceedings of the 26th Symposium (International) on Combustion The Combustion Institute Naples, Italy Aug. 1996
- Koenig M. Hall M. J. 1997 “Measurements of Local In-Cylinder Fuel Concentration Fluctuations in a Firing SI Engine” the 1997 SAE Spring Fuels and Lubricants Meeting Dearborn, Michigan
- Swindal, J. C. Dragonetti, D. P. Hahn, R. T. Furman, P. A. Acker, W. P. 1995 “In-Cylinder Charge Homogeneity During Cold-Start Studied with Fluorescent Tracers Simulating Different Fuel Distillation Temperatures” SAE Paper 950106
- Lee, G. R. Morley C. 1995 “Fuel-Wall Impaction as a Mechanism for Increased Hydrocarbon Emissions from Fuel Heavy Ends” SAE Paper 952523
- Stanglmaier, R. H. Roberts, C.E. Ezekoye, O.A. Matthews, R.D. 1997 “Condensation of Fuel on Combustion Chamber Surfaces as a Mechanism for Increased HC Emissions from SI Engines During Cold Start,” SAE Paper 972884
- Lentz, H. P. 1992 Mixture Formation in Spark-Ignition Engines Springer Verlag Vienna