This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Particulate Characterization Using Five Fuels
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published May 01, 1996 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
Particulate and regulated gaseous emissions were characterized in a feasibility study for a 1994 Ford Taurus Flexible Fuel Vehicle (FFV) operating on five fuels. The five fuels included Federal Reformulated Gasoline (RFG); 85% fuel grade methanol and 15% gasoline (M85); 85% denatured ethanol and 15% gasoline (E85d); liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) meeting HD-5 specifications; and industry average compressed natural gas (CNG). The vehicle was operated fuel-rich to simulate a vehicle operating condition leading to increased production of particulate matter. This simulation was accomplished by using a universal exhaust gas oxygen sensor (UEGO) in connection with an external controller. Appropriate aftermarket conversion kits involving closed-loop control and adaptive learning capabilities allowed operation on the gaseous fuels. Particulate emissions were characterized by total mass and particle size. The regulated gaseous emissions included: either total hydrocarbons and non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC), or organic material hydrocarbon equivalent (OMHCE) and organic material non-methane hydrocarbon equivalent (OMNMHCE); carbon monoxide (CO); and oxides of nitrogen (NOx). All tests were performed using the chassis dynamometer portion of the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) for light-duty vehicles. Even when operating the vehicle at the rich fuel/air equivalence ratio, vehicle particulate rates for all fuels were well below the 50 mg/km (80 mg/mi) particulate emission standard for 1996 light-duty vehicles.
CitationFanick, E., Whitney, K., and Bailey, B., "Particulate Characterization Using Five Fuels," SAE Technical Paper 961089, 1996, https://doi.org/10.4271/961089.
SAE 1996 Transactions - Journal of Fuels and Lubricants
Number: V105-4; Published: 1997-09-15
Number: V105-4; Published: 1997-09-15
- Howe, F.D. “Smoky and III-Smelling Exhausts,” Transactions of the Society of Automotive Engineers 1910
- Code of Federal Regulations Subparts A and B. Sections applicable to current Model Year Light-Duty Vehicles
- Marrack, D. “All PM-10 Are Not Biologically Equal,” Particulate Matter: Health and Regulatory Issues VIP-49 Proceeding of an International Specialty Conference Air & Waste Management Association April 4-6 1995
- Series 220 Instruction Manual Bulletin No. 12-78-220IM Sierra Instruments, Inc.
- King, S. “Natural Gas as a Stationary Engine and Vehicular Fuel,” SAE Paper 912364 1991
- Smith, L.R. “Characterization of Emissions from Motor Vehicles Designed for Low NO x Emissions,” Final Report EPA 600/2-80-176 July 1980
- Smith, L.R. et al “Analytical Procedures for Characterizing Unregulated Pollutant Emissions from Motor Vehicles,” Report EPA 600/2-79-17 February 1979
- Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc. (SAE) Recommended Practice J1151 “Methane Measurement Using Gas Chromatography,” December 1991 1994 SAE Handbook-SAE International Cooperative Engineering Program 1 Materials, Fuels, Emissions, and Noise 170
- Marple, V.A. Rubow, K.L. Olson, B.A. “Diesel Exhaust/Mine Dust Virtual Impactor Personal Aerosol Sampler: Design, Calibration and Field Evaluation,” Aerosol Science and Technology 22 140 150 1995
- Marple, V.A. Rubow, K.L. Behm, S.M. “A Microorifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI): Description, Calibration, and Use,” Aerosol Science and Technology 14 434 446 1991
- Fanick, E.R. Smith, L.R. Baines, T.M. “Safety Related Additives for Methanol Fuel,” SAE Paper 841378 Fuels and Lubricants Meetings Baltimore, Maryland October 8-11 1984
- Fanick, E.R. Smith, L.R. Russell, J.A. Likos, W.E. Ahuja, M. “Laboratory Evaluation of Safety-Related Additives for Neat Methanol Fuel” SAE paper 902156 International Fuels and Lubricants Meeting and Exposition Tulsa, Oklahoma October 22-25 1990
- Fanick, E.R. Smith, L.R. Ahuja, M.S. Albu, S. Santoro, S.J. Leonard, J.H. McCormack, M.C. Wiens, F.J. “Laboratory Evaluation of Additives for Flame Luminosity Improvement in Neat Methanol Fuel” SAE paper 930379 1993 SAE International Congress and Exposition Detroit, Ml March 1-5 1993